S-3
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As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on June 26, 2020

Registration No. 333-            

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM S-3

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

TREVI THERAPEUTICS, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

 

Delaware   45-0834299

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification Number)

195 Church Street, 14th Floor

New Haven, Connecticut 06510

(203) 304-2499

(Address, Including Zip Code, and Telephone Number, Including Area Code, of Registrant’s Principal Executive Offices)

 

 

Jennifer L. Good

President and Chief Executive Officer

Trevi Therapeutics, Inc.

195 Church Street, 14th Floor

New Haven, Connecticut 06510

(203) 304-2499

(Name, Address, Including Zip Code, and Telephone Number, Including Area Code, of Agent for Service)

 

 

Copy to:

 

Stuart M. Falber, Esq.

Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP

60 State Street

Boston, Massachusetts 02109

(617) 526-6000

 

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after this registration statement becomes effective.

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box.  ☐

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box.  ☒

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐


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If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer      Accelerated filer  
Non-accelerated filer      Smaller reporting company  
     Emerging growth company  

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.  ☒

 

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

 

Title of Each Class of
Securities to be Registered
 

Amount

to be

Registered(1)

 

Proposed

Maximum

Offering Price

Per Unit(1)

 

Proposed

Maximum

Aggregate
Offering Price(1)

  Amount of
Registration Fee

Debt Securities

               

Common Stock, par value $0.001 per share

               

Preferred Stock, par value $0.001 per share

               

Units(2)

               

Warrants

               

Total

          $150,000,000   $19,470

 

 

(1)

Pursuant to Form S-3 General Instruction II.D, this information is not required to be included. An indeterminate amount of the securities of each identified class is being registered as may from time to time be offered hereunder at indeterminate prices, along with an indeterminate number of securities that may be issued upon exercise, settlement, exchange or conversion of securities offered or sold hereunder as shall have an aggregate initial offering price not to exceed $150,000,000. Pursuant to Rule 416 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), this registration statement also covers any additional securities that may be offered or issued in connection with any stock split, stock dividend or pursuant to anti-dilution provisions of any of the securities. Separate consideration may or may not be received for securities that are issuable upon conversion, exercise or exchange of other securities. In addition, the proposed maximum aggregate offering price is estimated solely for the purpose of calculating the registration fee pursuant to Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act.

(2)

Each unit will be issued under a unit agreement and will be comprised of one or more of the other securities that may be offered under this registration statement, in any combination.

 

 

The Registrant hereby amends this Registration Statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this Registration Statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until the Registration Statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

 

 


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EXPLANATORY NOTE

This registration statement contains two prospectuses:

 

   

a base prospectus, which covers the offering, issuance and sale by the Registrant of up to $150,000,000 of the Registrant’s debt securities, common stock, preferred stock, units and warrants; and

 

   

a sales agreement prospectus, which covers the offering, issuance and sale by the Registrant of up to $12,000,000 of shares of the Registrant’s common stock that may be issued and sold from time to time under a sales agreement between the Registrant and SVB Leerink LLC.

The base prospectus immediately follows this explanatory note. The specific terms of any securities to be offered pursuant to the base prospectus will be specified in a prospectus supplement to the base prospectus. The sales agreement prospectus immediately follows the base prospectus. The common stock that may be offered, issued and sold by the Registrant under the sales agreement prospectus is included in the $150,000,000 of securities that may be offered, issued and sold by the Registrant under the base prospectus. Upon termination of the sales agreement with SVB Leerink LLC, any portion of the $12,000,000 of common stock that may be offered, issued and sold under the sales agreement prospectus that is not sold pursuant to the sales agreement will be available for sale in other offerings pursuant to the base prospectus and a prospectus supplement, and if no shares of common stock are sold pursuant to the sales agreement, the full $12,000,000 of securities may be sold in other offerings pursuant to the base prospectus and a prospectus supplement.


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The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and we are not soliciting offers to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

Subject to completion, dated June 26, 2020

PROSPECTUS

$150,000,000

Trevi Therapeutics, Inc.

Debt Securities

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Units

Warrants

 

 

We may offer and sell securities from time to time in one or more offerings of up to $150,000,000 in aggregate offering price. This prospectus describes the general terms of these securities and the general manner in which these securities will be offered. We will provide the specific terms of these securities in supplements to this prospectus. The prospectus supplements will also describe the specific manner in which these securities will be offered and may also supplement, update or amend information contained in this document. You should read this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement before you invest.

We may offer these securities in amounts, at prices and on terms determined at the time of offering. The securities may be sold directly to you, through agents, or through underwriters and dealers. If agents, underwriters or dealers are used to sell the securities, we will name them and describe their compensation in a prospectus supplement.

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “TRVI.”

As of June 25, 2020, the aggregate market value of our outstanding common stock held by non-affiliates was approximately $36,516,841, which we calculated based on 17,843,639 shares of outstanding common stock as of June 25, 2020, of which 6,296,007 shares were held by non-affiliates, and a price per share of $5.80 as of June 25, 2020, which is a date within 60 days prior to the date of this prospectus. Pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3, in no event will we sell, pursuant to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, securities in a public primary offering with a value exceeding one-third of the aggregate market value of our outstanding common stock held by non-affiliates in any 12-month period, so long as the aggregate market value of our outstanding common stock held by non-affiliates remains below $75 million. During the 12 calendar months prior to and including the date of this prospectus, we have not offered or sold any securities pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3.

 

 

Investing in these securities involves significant risks. See “Risk Factors” on page 2 of this prospectus and the risk factors set forth in any accompanying prospectus supplement and in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus for a discussion of the factors you should carefully consider before deciding to purchase these securities.

 

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

The date of this prospectus is                 , 2020


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     1  

RISK FACTORS

     2  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     3  

INFORMATION INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

     4  

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     5  

TREVI THERAPEUTICS, INC.

     6  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     7  

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

     8  

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

     17  

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

     24  

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

     25  

FORMS OF SECURITIES

     26  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     28  

LEGAL MATTERS

     31  

EXPERTS

     31  


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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, which we refer to as the “SEC,” utilizing a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may from time to time sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings for an aggregate offering price of up to $150,000,000.

This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we sell securities, we will provide one or more prospectus supplements that will contain specific information about the terms of the offering. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus or in any documents that we have incorporated by reference into this prospectus and, accordingly, to the extent inconsistent, information in this prospectus is superseded by the information in the prospectus supplement. You should read both this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information” beginning on page 3 of this prospectus and “Information Incorporated by Reference” beginning on page 4 of this prospectus.

You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement and in any related free writing prospectus filed by us with the SEC. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information. This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement do not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the securities described in this prospectus and such accompanying prospectus supplement, or an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy such securities in any circumstances in which such offer or solicitation is unlawful. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement, the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus or any prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus is accurate only as of their respective dates. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed materially since those dates.

Unless the context otherwise indicates, references in this prospectus to “we,” “our” and “us” refer, collectively, to Trevi Therapeutics, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and its subsidiary.

 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement, including the risk factors set forth in our filings with the SEC that are incorporated by reference herein, before making an investment decision pursuant to this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement relating to a specific offering.

Our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected by any or all of these risks or by additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial that may adversely affect us in the future.

 

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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public over the Internet at the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. Copies of certain information filed by us with the SEC are also available on our website at www.trevitherapeutics.com. Our website is not a part of this prospectus and is not incorporated by reference in this prospectus. Our website address is included in this document as an inactive textual reference only.

This prospectus is part of a registration statement we filed with the SEC. This prospectus omits some information contained in the registration statement in accordance with SEC rules and regulations. You should review the information and exhibits in the registration statement for further information about us and our subsidiary and the securities we are offering. Statements in this prospectus concerning any document we filed as an exhibit to the registration statement or that we otherwise filed with the SEC are not intended to be comprehensive and are qualified by reference to these filings. You should review the complete document to evaluate these statements.     

 

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INFORMATION INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference much of the information we file with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those publicly available documents. The information that we incorporate by reference in this prospectus is considered to be part of this prospectus. Because we are incorporating by reference future filings with the SEC, this prospectus is continually updated and those future filings may modify or supersede some of the information included or incorporated in this prospectus. This means that you must look at all of the SEC filings that we incorporate by reference to determine if any of the statements in this prospectus or in any document previously incorporated by reference have been modified or superseded. This prospectus incorporates by reference the documents listed below (File No. 001-38886) and any future filings we make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act (in each case, other than those documents or the portions of those documents not deemed to be filed), between the date of the initial registration statement and the effectiveness of the registration statement and following the effectiveness of the registration statement until the offering of the securities under the registration statement is terminated or completed:

 

   

Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, filed on March 16, 2020, including the information specifically incorporated by reference into the Annual Report on Form 10-K from our definitive proxy statement for the 2020 Annual Meeting of Stockholders;

 

   

Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended March 31, 2020, filed on May 7, 2020;

 

   

Current Reports on Form 8-K filed on January 6, 2020, February 18, 2020, and June 17, 2020; and

 

   

The description of our common stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A filed on April 29, 2019, including any amendments or reports filed for the purpose of updating such description.

You may request a copy of these filings, at no cost, by writing or telephoning us at the following address or telephone number:

Trevi Therapeutics, Inc.

195 Church Street, 14th Floor

New Haven, Connecticut 06510

(203) 304-2499

 

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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus and the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus include “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Exchange Act, which involve substantial risks and uncertainties. All statements, other than statements of historical fact, in this prospectus or the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus, including statements regarding our strategy, future operations, future financial position, future revenues and profitability, projected costs, prospects, plans and objectives of management, are forward-looking statements. The words “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “might,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “target,” “would,” “could,” “continue” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words.

The forward-looking statements in this prospectus include, among other things, statements about:

 

   

our ongoing clinical trials;

 

   

our plans to develop and, if approved, subsequently commercialize nalbuphine ER for the treatment of pruritus associated with prurigo nodularis or for other serious neurologically mediated conditions;

 

   

our expectations regarding the timing for the initiation of clinical trials, completion of enrollment of such trials and the reporting of data from such trials;

 

   

the timing of and our ability to submit applications for, and to obtain and maintain regulatory approvals for, nalbuphine ER;

 

   

our expectations regarding our ability to fund our operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements with our cash and cash equivalents;

 

   

our estimates regarding expenses, future revenue, timing of any future revenue, capital requirements and needs for additional financing;

 

   

the impact of government laws and regulations;

 

   

our competitive position; and

 

   

our ability to establish and maintain collaborations or obtain additional funding.

We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements, and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Actual results or events could differ materially from the plans, intentions and expectations disclosed in the forward-looking statements we make. We have included important factors in the cautionary statements included and incorporated by reference in this prospectus, particularly in the section titled “Risk Factors” that we believe could cause actual results or events to differ materially from the forward-looking statements that we make. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures or investments we may make.

You should read this prospectus and the documents that we reference herein and have filed or incorporated by reference herein completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may differ materially from what we expect. We do not assume any obligation to update any forward-looking statements except as required by applicable law.

 

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TREVI THERAPEUTICS, INC.

Overview

We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of nalbuphine ER to treat serious neurologically mediated conditions. We are developing nalbuphine ER for the treatment of chronic pruritus, chronic cough in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and levodopa-induced dyskinesia in patients with Parkinson’s disease. These conditions share a common pathophysiology that is mediated through opioid receptors in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Due to nalbuphine’s mechanism of action as a modulator of opioid receptors, we believe nalbuphine ER has the potential to be effective in treating each of these conditions. Our ongoing clinical trials of nalbuphine ER include a Phase 2b/3 clinical trial, which we refer to as the PRISM trial, in patients with severe pruritus associated with prurigo nodularis.

Corporate Information

We were incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware on March 17, 2011 under the name Trevi Therapeutics, Inc. Our principal executive offices are located at 195 Church Street, 14th Floor, New Haven, Connecticut, 06510, and our telephone number is (203) 304-2499. Our website address is www.trevitherapeutics.com. Information found on, or accessible through, our website is not a part, and is not incorporated into, this prospectus, and you should not consider it part of this prospectus. Our website address is included in this document as an inactive textual reference only.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of any securities offered under this prospectus for general corporate purposes unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement. General corporate purposes may include working capital and capital expenditures, research and development expenses, including clinical trial costs, the acquisition of, or investment in, companies, technologies, products or assets that complement our business, and repayment and refinancing of debt. However, as of the date of this prospectus, we have no current plans, commitments or agreements with respect to any material acquisitions or investments. We may temporarily invest the net proceeds from sales of securities hereunder in investment-grade, interest-bearing securities until they are used for their stated purpose. We have not determined the amount of net proceeds to be used specifically for such purposes. As a result, management will retain broad discretion over the allocation of net proceeds.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

We may offer debt securities which may be senior or subordinated. We refer to the senior debt securities and the subordinated debt securities collectively as debt securities. The following description summarizes the general terms and provisions of the debt securities. We will describe the specific terms of the debt securities and the extent, if any, to which the general provisions summarized below apply to any series of debt securities in the prospectus supplement relating to the series and any applicable free writing prospectus that we authorize to be delivered. When we refer to “the Company,” “we,” “our,” and “us” in this section, we mean Trevi Therapeutics, Inc. excluding, unless the context otherwise requires or as otherwise expressly stated, our subsidiaries.

We may issue senior debt securities from time to time, in one or more series under a senior indenture to be entered into between us and a senior trustee to be named in a prospectus supplement, which we refer to as the senior trustee. We may issue subordinated debt securities from time to time, in one or more series under a subordinated indenture to be entered into between us and a subordinated trustee to be named in a prospectus supplement, which we refer to as the subordinated trustee. The forms of senior indenture and subordinated indenture are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part. The senior indenture and the subordinated indenture are referred to individually as an indenture and together as the indentures and the senior trustee and the subordinated trustee are referred to individually as a trustee and together as the trustees. This section summarizes some of the provisions of the indentures and is qualified in its entirety by the specific text of the indentures, including definitions of terms used in the indentures. Wherever we refer to particular sections of, or defined terms in, the indentures, those sections or defined terms are incorporated by reference in this prospectus or the applicable prospectus supplement. You should review the indentures that are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part for additional information.

Neither indenture will limit the amount of debt securities that we may issue. The applicable indenture will provide that debt securities may be issued up to an aggregate principal amount authorized from time to time by us and may be payable in any currency or currency unit designated by us or in amounts determined by reference to an index.

General

The senior debt securities will constitute our unsecured and unsubordinated general obligations and will rank equally in right of payment with our other unsecured and unsubordinated obligations. The subordinated debt securities will constitute our unsecured and subordinated general obligations and will be junior in right of payment to our senior indebtedness (including senior debt securities), as described under the heading “—Certain Terms of the Subordinated Debt Securities—Subordination.” The debt securities will be structurally subordinated to all existing and future indebtedness and other liabilities of our subsidiaries unless such subsidiaries expressly guarantee such debt securities.

The debt securities will be our unsecured obligations. Any secured debt or other secured obligations will be effectively senior to the debt securities to the extent of the value of the assets securing such debt or other obligations. Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities will not be guaranteed by any of our subsidiaries.

The applicable prospectus supplement and/or free writing prospectus will include any additional or different terms of the debt securities of any series being offered, including the following terms:

 

   

the title and type of the debt securities;

 

   

whether the debt securities will be senior or subordinated debt securities, and, with respect to any subordinated debt securities the terms on which they are subordinated;

 

   

the initial aggregate principal amount of the debt securities;

 

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the price or prices at which we will sell the debt securities;

 

   

the maturity date or dates of the debt securities and the right, if any, to extend such date or dates;

 

   

the rate or rates, if any, at which the debt securities will bear interest, or the method of determining such rate or rates;

 

   

the date or dates from which such interest will accrue, the interest payment dates on which such interest will be payable or the method of determination of such dates;

 

   

the right, if any, to extend the interest payment periods and the duration of that extension;

 

   

the manner of paying principal and interest and the place or places where principal and interest will be payable;

 

   

provisions for a sinking fund, purchase fund or other analogous fund, if any;

 

   

any redemption dates, prices, obligations and restrictions on the debt securities;

 

   

the currency, currencies or currency units in which the debt securities will be denominated and the currency, currencies or currency units in which principal and interest, if any, on the debt securities may be payable;

 

   

any conversion or exchange features of the debt securities;

 

   

whether the debt securities will be subject to the defeasance provisions in the indenture;

 

   

whether the debt securities will be issued in definitive or global form or in definitive form only upon satisfaction of certain conditions;

 

   

whether the debt securities will be guaranteed as to payment or performance;

 

   

any special tax implications of the debt securities;

 

   

any events of defaults or covenants in addition to or in lieu of those set forth in the indenture; and

 

   

any other material terms of the debt securities.

When we refer to “principal” in this section with reference to the debt securities, we are also referring to “premium, if any.”

We may from time to time, without notice to or the consent of the holders of any series of debt securities, create and issue further debt securities of any such series ranking equally with the debt securities of such series in all respects (or in all respects other than (1) the payment of interest accruing prior to the issue date of such further debt securities or (2) the first payment of interest following the issue date of such further debt securities). Such further debt securities may be consolidated and form a single series with the debt securities of such series and have the same terms as to status, redemption or otherwise as the debt securities of such series.

You may present debt securities for exchange and you may present debt securities for transfer in the manner, at the places and subject to the restrictions set forth in the debt securities and the applicable prospectus supplement. We will provide you those services without charge, although you may have to pay any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection with any exchange or transfer, as set forth in the indenture.

Debt securities may bear interest at a fixed rate or a floating rate. Debt securities bearing no interest or interest at a rate that at the time of issuance is below the prevailing market rate (original issue discount securities) may be sold at a discount below their stated principal amount. U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to any such discounted debt securities or to certain debt securities issued at par which are treated as having been issued at a discount for U.S. federal income tax purposes will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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We may issue debt securities with the principal amount payable on any principal payment date, or the amount of interest payable on any interest payment date, to be determined by reference to one or more currency exchange rates, securities or baskets of securities, commodity prices or indices. You may receive a payment of principal on any principal payment date, or a payment of interest on any interest payment date, that is greater than or less than the amount of principal or interest otherwise payable on such dates, depending on the value on such dates of the applicable currency, security or basket of securities, commodity or index. Information as to the methods for determining the amount of principal or interest payable on any date, the currencies, securities or baskets of securities, commodities or indices to which the amount payable on such date is linked and certain related tax considerations will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Certain Terms of the Senior Debt Securities

Covenants. Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement with respect to a particular series of senior debt securities, the senior debt securities will not contain any financial or restrictive covenants, including covenants restricting either us or any of our subsidiaries from incurring, issuing, assuming or guaranteeing any indebtedness secured by a lien on any of our or our subsidiaries’ property or capital stock, or restricting either us or any of our subsidiaries from entering into sale and leaseback transactions.

Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets. Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement with respect to a particular series of senior debt securities, we may not consolidate with or merge into any other person, in a transaction in which we are not the surviving corporation, or convey, transfer or lease our properties and assets substantially as an entirety to any person, in either case, unless:

 

   

the successor entity, if any, is a U.S. corporation, limited liability company, partnership or trust;

 

   

the successor entity assumes our obligations on the senior debt securities and under the senior indenture;

 

   

immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no default or event of default shall have occurred and be continuing; and

 

   

we have delivered to the senior trustee an officer’s certificate and an opinion of counsel, each stating that the consolidation, merger, conveyance, transfer or lease and, if a supplemental indenture is required in connection with such transaction, such supplemental indenture, comply with the senior indenture and all conditions precedent provided for in the senior indenture relating to such transaction have been complied with.

The restrictions described in the bullets above do not apply (1) to our consolidation with or merging into one of our affiliates, if our board of directors determines in good faith that the purpose of the consolidation or merger is principally to change our state of incorporation or our form of organization to another form or (2) if we merge with or into a single direct or indirect wholly owned subsidiary of ours.

The surviving business entity will succeed to, and be substituted for, us under the senior indenture and the senior debt securities and, except in the case of a lease, we shall be released from all obligations under the senior indenture and the senior debt securities.

No Protection in the Event of a Change in Control. Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement with respect to a particular series of senior debt securities, the senior debt securities will not contain any provisions that may afford holders of the senior debt securities protection in the event we have a change in control or in the event of a highly leveraged transaction (whether or not such transaction results in a change in control).

 

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Events of Default. Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement with respect to a particular series of senior debt securities, the following are events of default under the senior indenture with respect to senior debt securities of each series:

 

   

failure to pay interest on any senior debt securities of such series when due and payable, if that default continues for a period of 30 days (or such other period as may be specified for such series);

 

   

failure to pay principal on the senior debt securities of such series when due and payable whether at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise (and, if specified for such series, the continuance of such failure for a specified period);

 

   

default in the performance of or breach of any of our covenants or agreements in the senior indenture applicable to senior debt securities of such series, other than a covenant breach which is specifically dealt with elsewhere in the senior indenture, and that default or breach continues for a period of 90 days after we receive written notice from the trustee or from the holders of 25% or more in aggregate principal amount of the senior debt securities of such series;

 

   

certain events of bankruptcy or insolvency, whether or not voluntary; and

 

   

any other event of default provided for in such series of senior debt securities as may be specified in the applicable prospectus supplement.

The default by us under any other debt, including any other series of debt securities, is not a default under the senior indenture.

If an event of default other than an event of default specified in the fourth bullet point above occurs with respect to a series of senior debt securities and is continuing under the senior indenture, then, and in each such case, either the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of such series then outstanding under the senior indenture (each such series voting as a separate class) by written notice to us and to the trustee, if such notice is given by the holders, may, and the trustee at the request of such holders shall, declare the principal amount of and accrued interest on such series of senior debt securities to be immediately due and payable, and upon this declaration, the same shall become immediately due and payable.

If an event of default specified in the fourth bullet point above occurs and is continuing, the entire principal amount of and accrued interest on each series of senior debt securities then outstanding shall automatically become immediately due and payable.

Unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement relating to a series of senior debt securities originally issued at a discount, the amount due upon acceleration shall include only the original issue price of the senior debt securities, the amount of original issue discount accrued to the date of acceleration and accrued interest, if any.

Upon certain conditions, declarations of acceleration may be rescinded and annulled and past defaults may be waived by the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of all the senior debt securities of such series affected by the default, each series voting as a separate class. Furthermore, subject to various provisions in the senior indenture, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of a series of senior debt securities, by notice to the trustee, may waive a continuing default or event of default with respect to such senior debt securities and its consequences, except a default in the payment of principal of or interest on such senior debt securities (other than any such default in payment resulting solely from an acceleration of the senior debt securities) or in respect of a covenant or provision of the senior indenture which cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the holders of each such senior debt security. Upon any such waiver, such default shall cease to exist, and any event of default with respect to such senior debt securities shall be deemed to have been cured, for every purpose of the senior indenture; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other default or event of default or impair any right consequent thereto.

 

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The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of a series of senior debt securities may direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee with respect to such senior debt securities. However, the trustee may refuse to follow any direction that conflicts with law or the senior indenture, that may involve the trustee in personal liability or that the trustee determines in good faith may be unduly prejudicial to the rights of holders of such series of senior debt securities not joining in the giving of such direction and may take any other action it deems proper that is not inconsistent with any such direction received from holders of such series of senior debt securities. A holder may not pursue any remedy with respect to the senior indenture or any series of senior debt securities unless:

 

   

the holder gives the trustee written notice of a continuing event of default;

 

   

the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of such series of senior debt securities make a written request to the trustee to pursue the remedy in respect of such event of default;

 

   

the requesting holder or holders offer the trustee indemnity satisfactory to the trustee against any costs, liability or expense;

 

   

the trustee does not comply with the request within 60 days after receipt of the request and the offer of indemnity; and

 

   

during such 60-day period, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of such series of senior debt securities do not give the trustee a direction that is inconsistent with the request.

These limitations, however, do not apply to the right of any holder of a senior debt security of any affected series to receive payment of the principal of and interest on such senior debt security in accordance with the terms of such debt security, or to bring suit for the enforcement of any such payment in accordance with the terms of such debt security, on or after the due date for the senior debt securities, which right shall not be impaired or affected without the consent of the holder.

The senior indenture requires certain of our officers to certify, on or before a fixed date in each year in which any senior debt security is outstanding, as to their knowledge of our compliance with all covenants, agreements and conditions under the senior indenture.

Satisfaction and Discharge. We can satisfy and discharge our obligations to holders of any series of debt securities if:

 

   

we have paid or caused to be paid the principal of and interest on all senior debt securities of such series (with certain limited exceptions) when due and payable; or

 

   

we deliver to the senior trustee for cancellation all senior debt securities of such series theretofore authenticated under the senior indenture (with certain limited exceptions); or

 

   

all senior debt securities of such series have become due and payable or will become due and payable within one year (or are to be called for redemption within one year under arrangements satisfactory to the senior trustee) and we deposit in trust an amount of cash or a combination of cash and U.S. government or U.S. government agency obligations (or in the case of senior debt securities denominated in a foreign currency, foreign government securities or foreign government agency securities) sufficient to make interest, principal and any other payments on the debt securities of that series on their various due dates;

and if, in any such case, we also pay or cause to be paid all other sums payable under the senior indenture, as and when the same shall be due and payable and we deliver to the senior trustee an officer’s certificate and an opinion of counsel, each stating that these conditions have been satisfied.

Under current U.S. federal income tax law, the deposit and our legal release from the debt securities would be treated as though we took back your debt securities and gave you your share of the cash and debt securities or

 

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bonds deposited in trust. In that event, you could recognize gain or loss on the debt securities you give back to us. Purchasers of the debt securities should consult their own advisers with respect to the tax consequences to them of such deposit and discharge, including the applicability and effect of tax laws other than the U.S. federal income tax law.

Defeasance. Unless the applicable prospectus supplement provides otherwise, the following discussion of legal defeasance and covenant defeasance will apply to any series of debt securities issued under the indentures.

Legal Defeasance. We can legally release ourselves from any payment or other obligations on the debt securities of any series (called “legal defeasance”) if certain conditions are met, including the following:

 

   

We deposit in trust for your benefit and the benefit of all other direct holders of the debt securities of the same series cash or a combination of cash and U.S. government or U.S. government agency obligations (or, in the case of senior debt securities denominated in a foreign currency, foreign government or foreign government agency obligations) that will generate enough cash to make interest, principal and any other payments on the debt securities of that series on their various due dates.

 

   

There is a change in current U.S. federal income tax law or an IRS ruling that lets us make the above deposit without causing you to be taxed on the debt securities any differently than if we did not make the deposit and instead repaid the debt securities ourselves when due. Under current U.S. federal income tax law, the deposit and our legal release from the debt securities would be treated as though we took back your debt securities and gave you your share of the cash and debt securities or bonds deposited in trust. In that event, you could recognize gain or loss on the debt securities you give back to us.

 

   

We deliver to the trustee a legal opinion of our counsel confirming the tax law change or ruling described above.

If we accomplish legal defeasance, as described above, you would have to rely solely on the trust deposit for repayment of the debt securities. You could not look to us for repayment in the event of any shortfall.

Covenant Defeasance. Without any change in current U.S. federal tax law, we can make the same type of deposit described above and be released from some of the covenants in the debt securities (called “covenant defeasance”). In that event, you would lose the protection of those covenants but would gain the protection of having money and securities set aside in trust to repay the debt securities. In order to achieve covenant defeasance, we must do the following (among other things):

 

   

We must deposit in trust for your benefit and the benefit of all other direct holders of the debt securities of the same series cash or a combination of cash and U.S. government or U.S. government agency obligations (or, in the case of senior debt securities denominated in a foreign currency, foreign government or foreign government agency obligations) that will generate enough cash to make interest, principal and any other payments on the debt securities of that series on their various due dates.

 

   

We must deliver to the trustee a legal opinion of our counsel confirming that under current U.S. federal income tax law we may make the above deposit without causing you to be taxed on the debt securities any differently than if we did not make the deposit and instead repaid the debt securities ourselves when due.

If we accomplish covenant defeasance, you could still look to us for repayment of the debt securities if there were a shortfall in the trust deposit. In fact, if one of the events of default occurred (such as our bankruptcy) and the debt securities become immediately due and payable, there may be such a shortfall. Depending on the events causing the default, you may not be able to obtain payment of the shortfall.

 

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Modification and Waiver. We and the trustee may amend or supplement the senior indenture or the senior debt securities of any series without the consent of any holder:

 

   

to convey, transfer, assign, mortgage or pledge any assets as security for the senior debt securities of one or more series;

 

   

to evidence the succession of a corporation, limited liability company, partnership or trust to us, and the assumption by such successor of our covenants, agreements and obligations under the senior indenture or to otherwise comply with the covenant relating to mergers, consolidations and sales of assets;

 

   

to comply with requirements of the SEC in order to effect or maintain the qualification of the senior indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended (the “Trust Indenture Act”);

 

   

to add to our covenants such new covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions for the protection of the holders, and to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and continuance, of a default in any such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an event of default;

 

   

to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the senior indenture or in any supplemental indenture or to conform the senior indenture or the senior debt securities to the description of senior debt securities of such series set forth in this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement;

 

   

to provide for or add guarantors with respect to the senior debt securities of any series;

 

   

to establish the form or forms or terms of the senior debt securities as permitted by the senior indenture;

 

   

to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment under the senior indenture by a successor trustee, or to make such changes as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts in the senior indenture by more than one trustee;

 

   

to add to, change or eliminate any of the provisions of the senior indenture in respect of one or more series of senior debt securities, provided that any such addition, change or elimination shall (a) neither (1) apply to any senior debt security of any series created prior to the execution of such supplemental indenture and entitled to the benefit of such provision nor (2) modify the rights of the holder of any such senior debt security with respect to such provision or (b) become effective only when there is no senior debt security described in clause (a)(1) outstanding;

 

   

to make any change to the senior debt securities of any series so long as no senior debt securities of such series are outstanding; or

 

   

to make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any holder in any material respect.

Other amendments and modifications of the senior indenture or the senior debt securities issued may be made, and our compliance with any provision of the senior indenture with respect to any series of senior debt securities may be waived, with the consent of the holders of a majority of the aggregate principal amount of the outstanding senior debt securities of each series affected by the amendment or modification (voting as separate series); provided, however, that each affected holder must consent to any modification, amendment or waiver that:

 

   

extends the final maturity of any senior debt securities of such series;

 

   

reduces the principal amount of any senior debt securities of such series;

 

   

reduces the rate, or extends the time for payment of, interest on any senior debt securities of such series;

 

   

reduces the amount payable upon the redemption of any senior debt securities of such series;

 

   

changes the currency of payment of principal of or interest on any senior debt securities of such series;

 

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reduces the principal amount of original issue discount securities payable upon acceleration of maturity or the amount provable in bankruptcy;

 

   

waives a continuing default in the payment of principal of or interest on the senior debt securities (other than any such default in payment resulting solely from an acceleration of the senior debt securities);

 

   

changes the provisions relating to the waiver of past defaults or impairs the right of holders to receive payment or to institute suit for the enforcement of any payment or conversion of any senior debt securities of such series on or after the due date therefor;

 

   

modifies any of the provisions of these restrictions on amendments and modifications, except to increase any required percentage or to provide that certain other provisions cannot be modified or waived without the consent of the holder of each senior debt security of such series affected by the modification;

 

   

adversely affects the right to convert or exchange senior debt securities into common stock or other property in accordance with the terms of the senior debt securities; or

 

   

reduces the above-stated percentage of outstanding senior debt securities of such series whose holders must consent to a supplemental indenture or modifies or amends or waives certain provisions of or defaults under the senior indenture.

It shall not be necessary for the holders to approve the particular form of any proposed amendment, supplement or waiver, but it shall be sufficient if the holders’ consent approves the substance thereof. After an amendment, supplement or waiver of the senior indenture in accordance with the provisions described in this section becomes effective, the trustee must give to the holders affected thereby certain notice briefly describing the amendment, supplement or waiver. Any failure by the trustee to give such notice, or any defect therein, shall not, however, in any way impair or affect the validity of any such amendment, supplemental indenture or waiver.

No Personal Liability of Incorporators, Stockholders, Officers, Directors. The senior indenture provides that no recourse shall be had under any obligation, covenant or agreement of ours in the senior indenture or any supplemental indenture, or in any of the senior debt securities or because of the creation of any indebtedness represented thereby, against any of our incorporators, stockholders, officers or directors, past, present or future, or of any predecessor or successor entity thereof under any law, statute or constitutional provision or by the enforcement of any assessment or by any legal or equitable proceeding or otherwise. Each holder, by accepting the senior debt securities, waives and releases all such liability.

Concerning the Trustee. The senior indenture provides that, except during the continuance of an event of default, the trustee will not be liable except for the performance of such duties as are specifically set forth in the senior indenture. If an event of default has occurred and is continuing, the trustee will exercise such rights and powers vested in it under the senior indenture and will use the same degree of care and skill in its exercise as a prudent person would exercise under the circumstances in the conduct of such person’s own affairs.

The senior indenture and the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act incorporated by reference therein contain limitations on the rights of the trustee thereunder, should it become a creditor of ours or any of our subsidiaries, to obtain payment of claims in certain cases or to realize on certain property received by it in respect of any such claims, as security or otherwise. The trustee is permitted to engage in other transactions, provided that if it acquires any conflicting interest (as defined in the Trust Indenture Act), it must eliminate such conflict or resign.

We may have normal banking relationships with the senior trustee in the ordinary course of business.

Unclaimed Funds. All funds deposited with the trustee or any paying agent for the payment of principal, premium, interest or additional amounts in respect of the senior debt securities that remain unclaimed for two

 

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years after the date upon which such amounts became due and payable will be repaid to us. Thereafter, any right of any holder of senior debt securities to such funds shall be enforceable only against us, and the trustee and paying agents will have no liability therefor.

Governing Law. The senior indenture and the senior debt securities will be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the internal laws of the State of New York.

Certain Terms of the Subordinated Debt Securities

Other than the terms of the subordinated indenture and subordinated debt securities relating to subordination or otherwise as described in the prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of subordinated debt securities, the terms of the subordinated indenture and subordinated debt securities are identical in all material respects to the terms of the senior indenture and senior debt securities.

Additional or different subordination terms may be specified in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series.

Subordination. The indebtedness evidenced by the subordinated debt securities is subordinate to the prior payment in full of all of our senior indebtedness, as defined in the subordinated indenture. During the continuance beyond any applicable grace period of any default in the payment of principal, premium, interest or any other payment due on any of our senior indebtedness, we may not make any payment of principal of or interest on the subordinated debt securities (except for certain sinking fund payments). In addition, upon any payment or distribution of our assets upon any dissolution, winding-up, liquidation or reorganization, the payment of the principal of and interest on the subordinated debt securities will be subordinated to the extent provided in the subordinated indenture in right of payment to the prior payment in full of all our senior indebtedness. Because of this subordination, if we dissolve or otherwise liquidate, holders of our subordinated debt securities may receive less, ratably, than holders of our senior indebtedness. The subordination provisions do not prevent the occurrence of an event of default under the subordinated indenture.

The term “senior indebtedness” of a person means with respect to such person the principal of, premium, if any, interest on, and any other payment due pursuant to any of the following, whether outstanding on the date of the subordinated indenture or incurred by that person in the future:

 

   

all of the indebtedness of that person for money borrowed;

 

   

all of the indebtedness of that person evidenced by notes, debentures, bonds or other securities sold by that person for money;

 

   

all of the lease obligations that are capitalized on the books of that person in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles;

 

   

all indebtedness of others of the kinds described in the first two bullet points above and all lease obligations of others of the kind described in the third bullet point above that the person, in any manner, assumes or guarantees or that the person in effect guarantees through an agreement to purchase, whether that agreement is contingent or otherwise; and

 

   

all renewals, extensions or refundings of indebtedness of the kinds described in the first, second or fourth bullet point above and all renewals or extensions of leases of the kinds described in the third or fourth bullet point above;

unless, in the case of any particular indebtedness, renewal, extension or refunding, the instrument creating or evidencing it or the assumption or guarantee relating to it expressly provides that such indebtedness, renewal, extension or refunding is not superior in right of payment to the subordinated debt securities. Our senior debt securities constitute senior indebtedness for purposes of the subordinated indenture.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

The following description of our capital stock is intended as a summary only and therefore is not a complete description of our capital stock. This description is based upon, and is qualified by reference to, our restated certificate of incorporation, or the certificate of incorporation, our amended and restated by-laws, or the by-laws, and applicable provisions of Delaware corporate law. You should read our certificate of incorporation and by-laws, which are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, for the provisions that are important to you.

Our authorized capital stock consists of 200,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.001 per share, and 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share.

Common Stock

Annual Meeting. Annual meetings of our stockholders are held on the date designated in accordance with our by-laws. Written notice must be mailed to each stockholder entitled to vote not less than ten nor more than 60 days before the date of the meeting. The presence in person or by proxy of the holders of record of a majority in voting power of our issued and outstanding shares entitled to vote at such meeting constitutes a quorum for the transaction of business at meetings of the stockholders. Special meetings of the stockholders may be called for any purpose by the board of directors and shall be called by the chairman of the board or the secretary upon the written request, stating the purpose of such meeting, of the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of all classes of capital stock entitled to vote at the meeting. Except as may be otherwise provided by applicable law, our certificate of incorporation or our by-laws, all elections shall be decided by a plurality, and all other questions shall be decided by a majority of the votes cast by stockholders entitled to vote thereon at a duly held meeting of stockholders at which a quorum is present.

Voting Rights. Each holder of common stock is entitled to one vote for each share held of record on all matters to be voted upon by stockholders. The common stock does not have cumulative voting rights.

Dividends. Subject to the rights, powers and preferences of any outstanding preferred stock, and except as provided by law or in our certificate of incorporation, dividends may be declared and paid or set aside for payment on the common stock out of legally available assets or funds when and as declared by the board of directors.

Liquidation, Dissolution and Winding Up. In the event of our liquidation or dissolution, the holders of our common stock are entitled to receive proportionately all assets available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of all debts and other liabilities and subject to the prior rights of any outstanding preferred stock. The rights, preferences and privileges of holders of our common stock are subject to and may be adversely affected by the rights of the holders of shares of any series of our preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future.

Other Rights. Holders of the common stock have no right to:

 

   

convert the stock into any other security;

 

   

have the stock redeemed;

 

   

purchase additional stock; or

 

   

maintain their proportionate ownership interest.

Holders of shares of the common stock are not required to make additional capital contributions.

Transfer Agent and Registrar. Computershare Trust Company, N.A. is transfer agent and registrar for the common stock.

 

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Preferred Stock

We are authorized to issue “blank check” preferred stock, which may be issued in one or more series upon authorization of our board of directors. Our board of directors is authorized to fix the designations, powers, preferences and the relative, participating, optional or other special rights and any qualifications, limitations and restrictions of the shares of each series of preferred stock. The authorized shares of our preferred stock are available for issuance without further action by our stockholders, unless such action is required by applicable law or the rules of any stock exchange on which our securities may be listed. If the approval of our stockholders is not required for the issuance of shares of our preferred stock, our board may determine not to seek stockholder approval. The specific terms of any series of preferred stock offered pursuant to this prospectus will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to that series of preferred stock.

A series of our preferred stock could, depending on the terms of such series, impede the completion of a merger, tender offer or other takeover attempt. Our board of directors will make any determination to issue preferred shares based upon its judgment as to the best interests of our stockholders. Our directors, in so acting, could issue preferred stock having terms that could discourage an acquisition attempt through which an acquirer may be able to change the composition of our board of directors, including a tender offer or other transaction that some, or a majority, of our stockholders might believe to be in their best interests or in which stockholders might receive a premium for their stock over the then-current market price of the stock.

The preferred stock has the terms described below unless otherwise provided in the prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of preferred stock. You should read the prospectus supplement relating to the particular series of preferred stock being offered for specific terms, including:

 

   

the designation and stated value per share of the preferred stock and the number of shares offered;

 

   

the amount of liquidation preference per share;

 

   

the price at which the preferred stock will be issued;

 

   

the dividend rate, or method of calculation of dividends, the dates on which dividends will be payable, whether dividends will be cumulative or noncumulative and, if cumulative, the dates from which dividends will commence to accumulate;

 

   

any redemption or sinking fund provisions;

 

   

if other than the currency of the United States, the currency or currencies including composite currencies in which the preferred stock is denominated and/or in which payments will or may be payable;

 

   

any conversion provisions; and

 

   

any other rights, preferences, privileges, limitations and restrictions on the preferred stock.

The preferred stock will, when issued, be fully paid and non-assessable. Unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement, each series of preferred stock will rank equally as to dividends and liquidation rights in all respects with each other series of preferred stock. The rights of holders of shares of each series of preferred stock will be subordinate to those of our general creditors.

Rank. Unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement, the preferred stock will, with respect to dividend rights and rights upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs, rank:

 

   

senior to our common stock and to all equity securities ranking junior to such preferred stock with respect to dividend rights or rights upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs;

 

   

on a parity with all equity securities issued by us, the terms of which specifically provide that such equity securities rank on a parity with the preferred stock with respect to dividend rights or rights upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs; and

 

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junior to all equity securities issued by us, the terms of which specifically provide that such equity securities rank senior to the preferred stock with respect to dividend rights or rights upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs.

The term “equity securities” does not include convertible debt securities.

Dividends. Holders of the preferred stock of each series will be entitled to receive, when, as and if declared by our board of directors, cash dividends at such rates and on such dates described in the prospectus supplement. Different series of preferred stock may be entitled to dividends at different rates or based on different methods of calculation. The dividend rate may be fixed or variable or both. Dividends will be payable to the holders of record as they appear on our stock books on record dates fixed by our board of directors, as specified in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Dividends on any series of preferred stock may be cumulative or noncumulative, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. If our board of directors does not declare a dividend payable on a dividend payment date on any series of noncumulative preferred stock, then the holders of that noncumulative preferred stock will have no right to receive a dividend for that dividend payment date, and we will have no obligation to pay the dividend accrued for that period, whether or not dividends on that series are declared payable on any future dividend payment dates. Dividends on any series of cumulative preferred stock will accrue from the date we initially issue shares of such series or such other date specified in the applicable prospectus supplement.

No dividends may be declared or paid or funds set apart for the payment of any dividends on any parity securities unless full dividends have been paid or set apart for payment on the preferred stock. If full dividends are not paid, the preferred stock will share dividends pro rata with the parity securities.

No dividends may be declared or paid or funds set apart for the payment of dividends on any junior securities unless full dividends for all dividend periods terminating on or prior to the date of the declaration or payment will have been paid or declared and a sum sufficient for the payment set apart for payment on the preferred stock.

Liquidation Preference. Upon any voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs, then, before we make any distribution or payment to the holders of any common stock or any other class or series of our capital stock ranking junior to the preferred stock in the distribution of assets upon any liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs, the holders of each series of preferred stock shall be entitled to receive out of assets legally available for distribution to stockholders, liquidating distributions in the amount of the liquidation preference per share set forth in the prospectus supplement, plus any accrued and unpaid dividends thereon. Such dividends will not include any accumulation in respect of unpaid noncumulative dividends for prior dividend periods. Unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement, after payment of the full amount of their liquidating distributions, the holders of preferred stock will have no right or claim to any of our remaining assets. Upon any such voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up, if our available assets are insufficient to pay the amount of the liquidating distributions on all outstanding preferred stock and the corresponding amounts payable on all other classes or series of our capital stock ranking on parity with the preferred stock and all other such classes or series of shares of capital stock ranking on parity with the preferred stock in the distribution of assets, then the holders of the preferred stock and all other such classes or series of capital stock will share ratably in any such distribution of assets in proportion to the full liquidating distributions to which they would otherwise be entitled.

Upon any such liquidation, dissolution or winding up and if we have made liquidating distributions in full to all holders of preferred stock, we will distribute our remaining assets among the holders of any other classes or series of capital stock ranking junior to the preferred stock according to their respective rights and preferences and, in each case, according to their respective number of shares. For such purposes, our consolidation or merger with or into any other corporation, trust or entity, or the sale, lease or conveyance of all or substantially all of our property or assets will not be deemed to constitute a liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs.

 

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Redemption. If so provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, the preferred stock will be subject to mandatory redemption or redemption at our option, as a whole or in part, in each case upon the terms, at the times and at the redemption prices set forth in such prospectus supplement.

The prospectus supplement relating to a series of preferred stock that is subject to mandatory redemption will specify the number of shares of preferred stock that shall be redeemed by us in each year commencing after a date to be specified, at a redemption price per share to be specified, together with an amount equal to all accrued and unpaid dividends thereon to the date of redemption. Unless the shares have a cumulative dividend, such accrued dividends will not include any accumulation in respect of unpaid dividends for prior dividend periods. We may pay the redemption price in cash or other property, as specified in the applicable prospectus supplement. If the redemption price for preferred stock of any series is payable only from the net proceeds of the issuance of shares of our capital stock, the terms of such preferred stock may provide that, if no such shares of our capital stock shall have been issued or to the extent the net proceeds from any issuance are insufficient to pay in full the aggregate redemption price then due, such preferred stock shall automatically and mandatorily be converted into the applicable shares of our capital stock pursuant to conversion provisions specified in the applicable prospectus supplement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, we will not redeem any preferred stock of a series unless:

 

   

if that series of preferred stock has a cumulative dividend, we have declared and paid or contemporaneously declare and pay or set aside funds to pay full cumulative dividends on the preferred stock for all past dividend periods and the then current dividend period; or

 

   

if such series of preferred stock does not have a cumulative dividend, we have declared and paid or contemporaneously declare and pay or set aside funds to pay full dividends for the then current dividend period.

In addition, we will not acquire any preferred stock of a series unless:

 

   

if that series of preferred stock has a cumulative dividend, we have declared and paid or contemporaneously declare and pay or set aside funds to pay full cumulative dividends on all outstanding shares of such series of preferred stock for all past dividend periods and the then current dividend period; or

 

   

if that series of preferred stock does not have a cumulative dividend, we have declared and paid or contemporaneously declare and pay or set aside funds to pay full dividends on the preferred stock of such series for the then current dividend period.

However, at any time we may purchase or acquire preferred stock of that series (1) pursuant to a purchase or exchange offer made on the same terms to holders of all outstanding preferred stock of such series or (2) by conversion into or exchange for shares of our capital stock ranking junior to the preferred stock of such series as to dividends and upon liquidation.

If fewer than all of the outstanding shares of preferred stock of any series are to be redeemed, we will determine the number of shares that may be redeemed pro rata from the holders of record of such shares in proportion to the number of such shares held or for which redemption is requested by such holder or by any other equitable manner that we determine. Such determination will reflect adjustments to avoid redemption of fractional shares.

Unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement, we will mail notice of redemption at least 30 days but not more than 60 days before the redemption date to each holder of record of preferred stock to be redeemed at the address shown on our stock transfer books. Each notice shall state:

 

   

the redemption date;

 

   

the number of shares and series of preferred stock to be redeemed;

 

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the redemption price;

 

   

the place or places where certificates for such preferred stock are to be surrendered for payment of the redemption price;

 

   

that dividends on the shares to be redeemed will cease to accrue on such redemption date;

 

   

the date on which the holder’s conversion rights, if any, as to such shares shall terminate; and

 

   

the specific number of shares to be redeemed from each such holder if fewer than all the shares of any series are to be redeemed.

If notice of redemption has been given and we have set aside the funds necessary for such redemption in trust for the benefit of the holders of any shares called for redemption, then from and after the redemption date, dividends will cease to accrue on such shares, and all rights of the holders of such shares will terminate, except the right to receive the redemption price.

Voting Rights. Holders of preferred stock will not have any voting rights, except as required by law or as indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Unless otherwise provided for under the terms of any series of preferred stock, no consent or vote of the holders of shares of preferred stock or any series thereof shall be required for any amendment to our certificate of incorporation that would increase the number of authorized shares of preferred stock or the number of authorized shares of any series thereof or decrease the number of authorized shares of preferred stock or the number of authorized shares of any series thereof (but not below the number of authorized shares of preferred stock or such series, as the case may be, then outstanding).

Conversion Rights. The terms and conditions, if any, upon which any series of preferred stock is convertible into our common stock will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement relating thereto. Such terms will include the number of shares of common stock into which the shares of preferred stock are convertible, the conversion price, rate or manner of calculation thereof, the conversion period, provisions as to whether conversion will be at our option or at the option of the holders of the preferred stock, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion price and provisions affecting conversion in the event of the redemption.

Transfer Agent and Registrar. The transfer agent and registrar for the preferred stock will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Exchange Listing. Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “TRVI.”

Provisions of Our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws and Delaware Law That May Have Anti-Takeover Effects

Board of Directors. Our certificate of incorporation and by-laws provide for a board of directors divided as nearly equally as possible into three classes. Each class is elected to a term expiring at the annual meeting of stockholders held in the third year following the year of such election. The number of directors comprising our board of directors is fixed from time to time by the board of directors.

Removal of Directors by Stockholders. Delaware law provides that members of our board of directors may only be removed for cause by a vote of the holders of 75% of the outstanding shares entitled to vote on the election of the directors.

Stockholder Nomination of Directors. Our by-laws provide that a stockholder must notify us in writing of any stockholder nomination of a director not more than 120 days and not less than 90 days prior to the first anniversary of the preceding year’s annual meeting; provided, that if the date of the annual meeting is advanced

 

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or delayed by more than 30 days from such anniversary date, notice by the stockholder to be timely must be so delivered not earlier than the 120th day prior to the date of such annual meeting and not later than the close of business on the later of (x) the 90th day prior to the date of such meeting and (y) the 10th day following the day on which notice of the date of such annual meeting was mailed or public disclosure of the date of such annual meeting was made, whichever occurs first.

No Action By Written Consent. Our certificate of incorporation provides that our stockholders may not act by written consent and may only act at duly called meetings of stockholders.

Delaware Law. We are subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, or the DGCL. Subject to certain exceptions, Section 203 prevents a publicly held Delaware corporation from engaging in a “business combination” with any “interested stockholder” for three years following the date that the person became an interested stockholder, unless either the interested stockholder attained such status with the approval of our board of directors, the business combination is approved by our board of directors and stockholders in a prescribed manner or the interested stockholder acquired at least 85% of our outstanding voting stock in the transaction in which it became an interested stockholder. A “business combination” includes, among other things, a merger or consolidation involving us and the “interested stockholder” and the sale of more than 10% of our assets. In general, an “interested stockholder” is any entity or person beneficially owning 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock and any entity or person affiliated with or controlling or controlled by such entity or person.

Exclusive Forum Selection. Our certificate of incorporation provides that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware (or, if the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware does not have jurisdiction, the federal district court for the District of Delaware)shall be the sole and exclusive forum for (1) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of our company, (2) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers, other employees or stockholders to our company or our stockholders, (3) any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the DGCL or as to which the DGCL confers jurisdiction on the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware or (4) any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of our certificate of incorporation or by-laws (in each case, as they may be amended from time to time) or governed by the internal affairs doctrine. Our certificate of incorporation further provides that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the federal district courts of the United States of America shall, to the fullest extent permitted by law, be the sole and exclusive forum for the resolution of any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act. Neither of these choice of forum provisions would affect suits brought to enforce any liability or duty created by the Exchange Act or the rules and regulations thereunder, jurisdiction over which is exclusively vested by statute in the United States federal courts, or any other claim for which United States federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction. Although our certificate of incorporation contains the choice of forum provisions described above, it is possible that a court could rule that such provisions are inapplicable for a particular claim or action.

Registration Rights

We are party to a second amended and restated investors’ rights agreement, which we refer to as the investors’ rights agreement, under which holders of a total of 10,325,257 shares of our common stock have the right to require us to register these shares under the Securities Act under specified circumstances. We refer to the shares with these registration rights as registrable securities. After registration pursuant to these rights, the registrable securities will become freely tradable without restriction under the Securities Act. In addition, in connection with a private placement to New Enterprise Associates, or NEA, in May 2019, we granted NEA the right to require us to register under the Securities Act under specified circumstances the shares to NEA in such private placement, and upon such registration, such shares would become freely tradable without restriction under the Securities Act.

 

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Demand and Form S-3 Registration Rights. Subject to specified limitations and conditions set forth in the investors’ rights agreement, at any time, the holders of at least a majority of the then outstanding registrable securities may demand that we register registrable securities then outstanding under the Securities Act for purposes of a public offering having an aggregate offering price to the public of not less than $10.0 million, net of certain expenses, underwriting discounts and selling commissions. We are not obligated to file a registration statement pursuant to this provision on more than two occasions. In addition, subject to specified limitations and conditions set forth in the investors’ rights agreement, at any time when we are eligible to file a registration statement on Form S-3, holders of the registrable securities then outstanding may request that we register their registrable securities on Form S-3 for purposes of a public offering for which the reasonably anticipated aggregate offering price to the public, net of certain expenses, underwriting discounts and selling commissions, would exceed $1.0 million. We are not obligated to file a registration statement pursuant to this provision on more than two occasions in any 12-month period.

Incidental Registration Rights. If we propose to register for our own account or for the account of our other stockholders any of our common stock under the Securities Act, the holders of registrable securities will be entitled to notice of the registration and, subject to specified exceptions, have the right to require us to register all or a portion of the registrable securities then held by them in that registration. In the event that any registration in which the holders of registrable securities participate pursuant to our investors’ rights agreement is an underwritten public offering, we have agreed to enter into an underwriting agreement in usual and customary form and use our commercially reasonable efforts to facilitate such offering.

Expenses and Indemnification. Pursuant to the investors’ rights agreement, we are required to pay all registration expenses, including all registration and filing fees, exchange listing fees, printing expenses, fees and expenses of one counsel selected by the selling stockholders to represent the selling stockholders, state Blue Sky fees and expenses, and the expense of any special audits incident to or required by any such registration, but excluding underwriting discounts, selling commissions, stock transfer taxes and the fees and expenses of the selling stockholders’ own counsel (other than the counsel selected to represent all selling stockholders). The investors’ rights agreement contains customary cross-indemnification provisions, pursuant to which we are obligated to indemnify the selling stockholders in the event of material misstatements or alleged material misstatements or material omissions or alleged material omissions in the registration statement attributable to us, or any violation or alleged violation, whether by action or inaction, by us under the Securities Act; the Exchange Act; any state securities or Blue Sky law or any rule or regulation promulgated under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act or any state securities or Blue Sky law in connection with such registration statement or the qualification or compliance of the offering, and they are obligated to indemnify us for material misstatements or omissions in the registration statement attributable to them.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

We may issue units comprised of one or more of the other securities that may be offered under this prospectus, in any combination. The following, together with the additional information we may include in any applicable prospectus supplement, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the units that we may offer under this prospectus. While the terms summarized below will apply generally to any units we may offer, we will describe the particular terms of any series of units in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Each unit will be issued so that the holder of the unit is also the holder of each security included in the unit. Thus, the holder of a unit will have the rights and obligations of a holder of each included security. The unit agreement under which a unit is issued may provide that the securities included in the unit may not be held or transferred separately at any time, or at any time before a specified date.

Any applicable prospectus supplement will describe:

 

   

the material terms of the units and of the securities comprising the units, including whether and under what circumstances those securities may be held or transferred separately;

 

   

the name and address of any unit agent for any units we offer;

 

   

any material provisions relating to the issuance, payment, settlement, transfer or exchange of the units or of the securities comprising the units; and

 

   

any material provisions of the governing unit agreement that differ from those described above.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

We may issue warrants to purchase common stock, preferred stock or debt securities. We may offer warrants separately or together with one or more additional warrants, common stock, preferred stock or debt securities, or any combination of those securities in the form of units, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. If we issue warrants as part of a unit, the accompanying prospectus supplement will specify whether those warrants may be separated from the other securities in the unit prior to the expiration date of the warrants. The applicable prospectus supplement will also describe the following terms of any warrants:

 

   

the specific designation and aggregate number of, and the offering price at which we will issue, the warrants;

 

   

the currency or currency units in which the offering price, if any, and the exercise price are payable;

 

   

the date on which the right to exercise the warrants will begin and the date on which that right will expire or, if you may not continuously exercise the warrants throughout that period, the specific date or dates on which you may exercise the warrants;

 

   

whether the warrants are to be sold separately or with other securities as parts of units;

 

   

whether the warrants will be issued in definitive or global form or in any combination of these forms, although, in any case, the form of a warrant included in a unit will correspond to the form of the unit and of any security included in that unit;

 

   

any applicable material U.S. federal income tax consequences;

 

   

the identity of the warrant agent for the warrants and of any other depositaries, execution or paying agents, transfer agents, registrars or other agents;

 

   

the proposed listing, if any, of the warrants or any securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants on any securities exchange;

 

   

the designation and terms of any equity securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants;

 

   

the designation, aggregate principal amount, currency and terms of any debt securities that may be purchased upon exercise of the warrants;

 

   

if applicable, the designation and terms of the preferred stock with which the warrants are issued and the number of warrants issued with each security;

 

   

if applicable, the date from and after which any warrants issued as part of a unit and the related debt securities, preferred stock or common stock will be separately transferable;

 

   

the number of shares of common stock or preferred stock purchasable upon exercise of a warrant and the price at which those shares may be purchased;

 

   

if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of the warrants that may be exercised at any one time;

 

   

information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any;

 

   

the anti-dilution provisions of, and other provisions for changes to or adjustment in the exercise price of, the warrants, if any;

 

   

any redemption or call provisions; and

 

   

any additional terms of the warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange or exercise of the warrants.

 

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FORMS OF SECURITIES

Each debt security, unit and warrant will be represented either by a certificate issued in definitive form to a particular investor or by one or more global securities representing the entire issuance of securities. Unless the applicable prospectus supplement provides otherwise, certificated securities in definitive form and global securities will be issued in registered form. Definitive securities name you or your nominee as the owner of the security, and in order to transfer or exchange these securities or to receive payments other than interest or other interim payments, you or your nominee must physically deliver the securities to the trustee, registrar, paying agent or other agent, as applicable. Global securities name a depositary or its nominee as the owner of the debt securities, units or warrants represented by these global securities. The depositary maintains a computerized system that will reflect each investor’s beneficial ownership of the securities through an account maintained by the investor with its broker/dealer, bank, trust company or other representative, as we explain more fully below.

Global Securities

We may issue the debt securities, units and warrants in the form of one or more fully registered global securities that will be deposited with a depositary or its nominee identified in the applicable prospectus supplement and registered in the name of that depositary or nominee. In those cases, one or more global securities will be issued in a denomination or aggregate denominations equal to the portion of the aggregate principal or face amount of the securities to be represented by global securities. Unless and until it is exchanged in whole for securities in definitive registered form, a global security may not be transferred except as a whole by and among the depositary for the global security, the nominees of the depositary or any successors of the depositary or those nominees.

If not described below, any specific terms of the depositary arrangement with respect to any securities to be represented by a global security will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to those securities. We anticipate that the following provisions will apply to all depositary arrangements.

Ownership of beneficial interests in a global security will be limited to persons, called participants, that have accounts with the depositary or persons that may hold interests through participants. Upon the issuance of a global security, the depositary will credit, on its book-entry registration and transfer system, the participants’ accounts with the respective principal or face amounts of the securities beneficially owned by the participants. Any dealers, underwriters or agents participating in the distribution of the securities will designate the accounts to be credited. Ownership of beneficial interests in a global security will be shown on, and the transfer of ownership interests will be effected only through, records maintained by the depositary, with respect to interests of participants, and on the records of participants, with respect to interests of persons holding through participants. The laws of some states may require that some purchasers of securities take physical delivery of these securities in definitive form. These laws may impair your ability to own, transfer or pledge beneficial interests in global securities.

So long as the depositary, or its nominee, is the registered owner of a global security, that depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, will be considered the sole owner or holder of the securities represented by the global security for all purposes under the applicable indenture, warrant agreement or unit agreement. Except as described below, owners of beneficial interests in a global security will not be entitled to have the securities represented by the global security registered in their names, will not receive or be entitled to receive physical delivery of the securities in definitive form and will not be considered the owners or holders of the securities under the applicable indenture, unit agreement or warrant agreement. Accordingly, each person owning a beneficial interest in a global security must rely on the procedures of the depositary for that global security and, if that person is not a participant, on the procedures of the participant through which the person owns its interest, to exercise any rights of a holder under the applicable indenture, unit agreement or warrant agreement. We understand that under existing industry practices, if we request any action of holders or if an owner of a beneficial interest in a global security desires to give or take any action that a holder is entitled to give or take

 

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under the applicable indenture, unit agreement or warrant agreement, the depositary for the global security would authorize the participants holding the relevant beneficial interests to give or take that action, and the participants would authorize beneficial owners owning through them to give or take that action or would otherwise act upon the instructions of beneficial owners holding through them.

Principal, premium, if any, and interest payments on debt securities, and any payments to holders with respect to warrants or units, represented by a global security registered in the name of a depositary or its nominee will be made to the depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, as the registered owner of the global security. None of us, or any trustee, unit agent, warrant agent or other agent of ours, or any agent of any trustee, warrant agent or unit agent will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in the global security or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to those beneficial ownership interests.

We expect that the depositary for any of the securities represented by a global security, upon receipt of any payment to holders of principal, premium, interest or other distribution of underlying securities or other property on that registered global security, will immediately credit participants’ accounts in amounts proportionate to their respective beneficial interests in that global security as shown on the records of the depositary. We also expect that payments by participants to owners of beneficial interests in a global security held through participants will be governed by standing customer instructions and customary practices, as is now the case with the securities held for the accounts of customers or registered in “street name,” and will be the responsibility of those participants.

If the depositary for any of the securities represented by a global security is at any time unwilling or unable to continue as depositary or ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act, and a successor depositary registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act is not appointed by us within 90 days, we will issue securities in definitive form in exchange for the global security that had been held by the depositary. Any securities issued in definitive form in exchange for a global security will be registered in the name or names that the depositary gives to the relevant trustee, unit agent, warrant agent or other relevant agent of ours or theirs. It is expected that the depositary’s instructions will be based upon directions received by the depositary from participants with respect to ownership of beneficial interests in the global security that had been held by the depositary.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We may sell securities:

 

   

through underwriters;

 

   

through dealers;

 

   

through agents;

 

   

directly to purchasers; or

 

   

through a combination of any of these methods of sale.

In addition, we may issue the securities as a dividend or distribution or in a subscription rights offering to our existing security holders. This prospectus may be used in connection with any offering of our securities through any of these methods or other methods described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

We may directly solicit offers to purchase securities, or agents may be designated to solicit such offers. We will, in the prospectus supplement relating to such offering, name any agent that could be viewed as an underwriter under the Securities Act, and describe any commissions that we must pay. Any such agent will be acting on a best efforts basis for the period of its appointment or, if indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, on a firm commitment basis.

The distribution of the securities may be effected from time to time in one or more transactions:

 

   

at a fixed price, or prices, which may be changed from time to time;

 

   

at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

 

   

at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or

 

   

at negotiated prices.

We may also sell equity securities covered by this prospectus in “at the market offerings” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act. Such offerings may be made into an existing trading market for such securities in transactions at other than a fixed price on or through the facilities of Nasdaq or any other securities exchange or quotation or trading service on which such securities may be listed, quoted or traded at the time of sale.

Such at the market offerings, if any, may be conducted by underwriters or placement agents acting as principal or agent.

Each prospectus supplement will describe the method of distribution of the securities and any applicable restrictions.

The prospectus supplement with respect to the securities of a particular series will describe the terms of the offering of the securities, including the following:

 

   

the name of the agent or any underwriters;

 

   

the public offering or purchase price and the proceeds we will receive from the sale of the securities;

 

   

any discounts and commissions to be allowed or re-allowed or paid to the agent or underwriters;

 

   

all other items constituting underwriting compensation;

 

   

any discounts and commissions to be allowed or re-allowed or paid to dealers; and

 

   

any exchanges on which the securities will be listed.

 

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If any underwriters or agents are utilized in the sale of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is delivered, we will enter into an underwriting agreement or other agreement with them at the time of sale to them, and we will set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to such offering the names of the underwriters or agents and the terms of the related agreement with them.

If a dealer is utilized in the sale of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is delivered, we will sell such securities to the dealer, as principal. The dealer may then resell such securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by such dealer at the time of resale.

If we offer securities in a subscription rights offering to our existing security holders, we may enter into a standby underwriting agreement with dealers, acting as standby underwriters. We may pay the standby underwriters a commitment fee for the securities they commit to purchase on a standby basis. If we do not enter into a standby underwriting arrangement, we may retain a dealer-manager to manage a subscription rights offering for us.

Remarketing firms, agents, underwriters, dealers and other persons may be entitled under agreements which they may enter into with us to indemnification by us against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, and may be customers of, engage in transactions with or perform services for us in the ordinary course of business.

If so indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will authorize underwriters or other persons acting as our agents to solicit offers by certain institutions to purchase securities from us pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on the date stated in the prospectus supplement. Each contract will be for an amount not less than, and the aggregate amount of securities sold pursuant to such contracts shall not be less nor more than, the respective amounts stated in the prospectus supplement. Institutions with whom the contracts, when authorized, may be made include commercial and savings banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies, educational and charitable institutions and other institutions, but shall in all cases be subject to our approval. Delayed delivery contracts will not be subject to any conditions except that:

 

   

the purchase by an institution of the securities covered under that contract shall not at the time of delivery be prohibited under the laws of the jurisdiction to which that institution is subject; and

 

   

if the securities are also being sold to underwriters acting as principals for their own account, the underwriters shall have purchased such securities not sold for delayed delivery. The underwriters and other persons acting as our agents will not have any responsibility in respect of the validity or performance of delayed delivery contracts.

Certain agents, underwriters and dealers, and their associates and affiliates may be customers of, have borrowing relationships with, engage in other transactions with, and/or perform services, including investment banking services, for us or one or more of our respective affiliates in the ordinary course of business.

In order to facilitate the offering of the securities, any underwriters may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the securities or any other securities the prices of which may be used to determine payments on such securities. Specifically, any underwriters may overallot in connection with the offering, creating a short position for their own accounts. In addition, to cover overallotments or to stabilize the price of the securities or of any such other securities, the underwriters may bid for, and purchase, the securities or any such other securities in the open market. Finally, in any offering of the securities through a syndicate of underwriters, the underwriting syndicate may reclaim selling concessions allowed to an underwriter or a dealer for distributing the securities in the offering if the syndicate repurchases previously distributed securities in transactions to cover syndicate short positions, in stabilization transactions or otherwise. Any of these activities may stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities above independent market levels. Any such underwriters are not required to engage in these activities and may end any of these activities at any time.

 

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Under Rule 15c6-1 of the Exchange Act, trades in the secondary market generally are required to settle in two business days, unless the parties to any such trade expressly agree otherwise or the securities are sold by us to an underwriter in a firm commitment underwritten offering. The applicable prospectus supplement may provide that the original issue date for your securities may be more than two scheduled business days after the trade date for your securities. Accordingly, in such a case, if you wish to trade securities on any date prior to the second business day before the original issue date for your securities, you will be required, by virtue of the fact that your securities initially are expected to settle in more than two scheduled business days after the trade date for your securities, to make alternative settlement arrangements to prevent a failed settlement.

The securities may be new issues of securities and may have no established trading market. The securities may or may not be listed on a national securities exchange. We can make no assurance as to the liquidity of or the existence of trading markets for any of the securities.

In compliance with the guidelines of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, or FINRA, the aggregate maximum discount, commission or agency fees or other items constituting underwriting compensation to be received by any FINRA member or independent broker-dealer will not exceed 8% of the proceeds from any offering pursuant to this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

Unless the applicable prospectus supplement indicates otherwise, the validity of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is being delivered will be passed upon by Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP.

EXPERTS

The consolidated financial statements of Trevi Therapeutics, Inc. appearing in Trevi Therapeutics, Inc.’s Annual Report (Form 10-K) for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018 have been audited by Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, as set forth in their report thereon, included therein, and incorporated herein by reference. Such consolidated financial statements are incorporated herein by reference in reliance upon such report given on the authority of such firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

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Trevi Therapeutics, Inc.

$150,000,000

Debt Securities

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Units

Warrants

 

 

PROSPECTUS

 

 

                    , 2020

 

 

 


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The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement related to these securities filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and we are not soliciting offers to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

Subject to completion, dated June 26, 2020

PROSPECTUS

Up to $12,000,000

 

LOGO

Common Stock

 

 

We have entered into a sales agreement, or the Sales Agreement, with SVB Leerink LLC, or SVB Leerink, dated June 26, 2020, relating to shares of our common stock, par value $0.001 per share, offered by this prospectus. In accordance with the terms of the Sales Agreement, we may offer and sell shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $12,000,000 from time to time through SVB Leerink, acting as our agent.

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “TRVI”. On June 25, 2020, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Market was $5.80 per share.

As of June 25, 2020, the aggregate market value of our outstanding common stock held by non-affiliates was approximately $36,516,841, which we calculated based on 17,843,639 shares of outstanding common stock as of June 25, 2020, of which 6,296,007 shares were held by non-affiliates, and a price per share of $5.80 as of June 25, 2020, which is a date within 60 days prior to the date of this prospectus. Pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3, in no event will we sell, pursuant to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, securities in a public primary offering with a value exceeding one-third of the aggregate market value of our outstanding common stock held by non-affiliates in any 12-month period, so long as the aggregate market value of our outstanding common stock held by non-affiliates remains below $75 million. During the 12 calendar months prior to and including the date of this prospectus, we have not offered or sold any securities pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3.

Sales of our common stock, if any, under this prospectus may be made in sales deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. SVB Leerink is not required to sell any specific number or dollar amount of shares of our common stock but will act as our sales agent and use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable state and federal laws, rules and regulations and the rules of the Nasdaq Global Market to sell on our behalf the shares of common stock requested to be sold by us, on mutually agreed terms between SVB Leerink and us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in any escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

The compensation payable to SVB Leerink for sales of common stock sold pursuant to the Sales Agreement will be an amount equal to 3.0% of the gross proceeds from the sale of any shares of common stock under the Sales Agreement. See “Plan of Distribution” beginning on page SA-15 for additional information regarding the compensation to be paid to SVB Leerink. In connection with the sale of the common stock on our behalf, SVB Leerink will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act, and the compensation paid to SVB Leerink will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have also agreed in the Sales Agreement to provide indemnification and contribution to SVB Leerink with respect to certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act.

 

 

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page SA-5 of this prospectus and the risk factors in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus for a discussion of the factors you should carefully consider before deciding to purchase our common stock.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

SVB Leerink

The date of this prospectus is                 , 2020


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Sales Agreement Prospectus

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     SA-1  

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

     SA-3  

RISK FACTORS

     SA-5  

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     SA-7  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     SA-8  

DILUTION

     SA-9  

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

     SA-11  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     SA-15  

LEGAL MATTERS

     SA-17  

EXPERTS

     SA-17  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     SA-18  

INFORMATION INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

     SA-19  


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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, which we refer to as the SEC or the Commission, utilizing a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may from time to time offer shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $12,000,000 under this prospectus at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of offering.

Before buying any of the common stock that we are offering, we urge you to carefully read this prospectus, all of the information contained in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus, as well as the additional information described under the headings “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Information Incorporated by Reference.” These documents contain important information that you should consider when making your investment decision.

This prospectus contains or incorporates by reference summaries of certain provisions contained in some of the documents described herein, but all such summaries are qualified in their entirety by the actual documents. Copies of some of the documents referred to herein have been or will be filed or have been or will be incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, and you may obtain copies of those documents as described in this prospectus under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information.”

This prospectus describes the specific terms of the common stock we are offering and also adds to, and updates information contained in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus. To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus, on the one hand, and the information contained in any document incorporated by reference in this prospectus that was filed with the SEC before the date of this prospectus, on the other hand, you should rely on the information in this prospectus. If any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date—for example, a document incorporated by reference in this prospectus—the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement.

We further note that the representations, warranties and covenants made by us in any agreement that is filed as an exhibit to any document that is incorporated by reference herein were made solely for the benefit of the parties to such agreement, including, in some cases, for the purpose of allocating risk among the parties to such agreement, and should not be deemed to be a representation, warranty or covenant to you. Moreover, such representations, warranties or covenants were accurate only as of the date when made. Accordingly, such representations, warranties and covenants should not be relied on as accurately representing the current state of our affairs.

You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus and in any free writing prospectus we have authorized for use in connection with this offering. Neither we nor SVB Leerink LLC, or SVB Leerink, have authorized anyone to provide you with any information other than that contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or in any free writing prospectus that we authorize for use in connection with this offering and to which we have referred you. We and SVB Leerink take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. This prospectus does not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the securities described in this prospectus or an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy such securities in any circumstances in which such offer or solicitation is unlawful. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference herein and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering is accurate only as of their respective dates. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed materially since those dates.

 

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Other than in the United States, no action has been taken by us or SVB Leerink that would permit a public offering of the securities offered by this prospectus in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required. The securities offered by this prospectus may not be offered or sold, directly or indirectly, nor may this prospectus or any other offering material or advertisements in connection with the offer and sale of any such securities be distributed or published in any jurisdiction, except under circumstances that will result in compliance with the applicable rules and regulations of that jurisdiction. Persons into whose possession this prospectus comes are advised to inform themselves about and to observe any restrictions relating to the offering and the distribution of this prospectus.

Unless the context otherwise indicates, references in this prospectus to “we,” “our” and “us” refer, collectively, to Trevi Therapeutics, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and its subsidiary.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

This summary highlights selected information contained elsewhere in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus. Because it is only a summary, it does not contain all of the information that you should consider before investing in our common stock, and it is qualified in its entirety by, and should be read in conjunction with, the more detailed information appearing elsewhere in this prospectus, any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering and the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus. You should read all such documents carefully, and you should pay special attention to the information contained under the caption entitled “Risk Factors” in this prospectus, in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2020, in any subsequent Annual Reports on Form 10-K and Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and in our other reports filed from time to time with the SEC, which are incorporated by reference into this prospectus, before deciding to buy shares of our common stock.

Overview

We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of nalbuphine ER to treat serious neurologically mediated conditions. We are developing nalbuphine ER for the treatment of chronic pruritus, chronic cough in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and levodopa-induced dyskinesia in patients with Parkinson’s disease. These conditions share a common pathophysiology that is mediated through opioid receptors in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Due to nalbuphine’s mechanism of action as a modulator of opioid receptors, we believe nalbuphine ER has the potential to be effective in treating each of these conditions. Our ongoing clinical trials of nalbuphine ER include a Phase 2b/3 clinical trial, which we refer to as the PRISM trial, in patients with severe pruritus associated with prurigo nodularis. If successful, we expect that we will use the PRISM trial and an additional Phase 3 clinical trial that we plan to conduct to support the submission of a new drug application to the United States Food and Drug Administration and a marketing authorization application to the European Medicines Agency for nalbuphine ER for the treatment of pruritus associated with prurigo nodularis.

Corporate Information

We were incorporated in Delaware on March 17, 2011 under the name Trevi Therapeutics, Inc. Our principal executive offices are located at 195 Church Street, 14th Floor, New Haven, Connecticut, 06510, and our telephone number is (203) 304-2499. Our website is located at www.trevitherapeutics.com. Information found on, or accessible through, our website is not a part of, and is not incorporated into, this prospectus, and you should not consider it part of this prospectus. Our website address is included in this document as an inactive textual reference only.

Information concerning our business and our prospects is included in the documents that we file with the SEC as a reporting company under the Exchange Act, which are accessible at www.sec.gov, and on our website.



 

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THE OFFERING

 

Common Stock Offered by Us

Shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $12,000,000.

 

Common Stock to Be Outstanding After This Offering

Up to 19,903,535 shares, assuming sales of 2,068,965 shares of our common stock in this offering at a price of $5.80 per share, which was the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Market on June 25, 2020. The actual number of shares issued will vary depending on the sales price under this offering.

 

Manner of Offering

“At the market offering” that may be made from time to time through our sales agent, SVB Leerink. See “Plan of Distribution” on page SA-15.

 

Use of Proceeds

We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering, if any, to fund the clinical development of nalbuphine ER and for working capital and other general corporate purposes. See “Use of Proceeds.”

 

Risk Factors

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should read the “Risk Factors” section of this prospectus beginning on page SA-5 as well as those risk factors that are incorporated by reference in this prospectus for a discussion of factors to consider carefully before deciding to invest in our common stock.

 

Nasdaq Global Market Symbol

“TRVI.”

The number of shares of our common stock to be outstanding after this offering is based on 17,834,570 shares of our common stock outstanding as of March 31, 2020. The number of shares of our common stock to be outstanding as used throughout this prospectus, unless otherwise indicated, excludes:

 

   

2,205,535 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of stock options outstanding as of March 31, 2020 at a weighted-average exercise price of $6.03 per share;

 

   

1,131,554 shares of common stock reserved as of March 31, 2020 for future issuance under our 2019 Stock Incentive Plan; and

 

   

333,451 shares of common stock reserved as of March 31, 2020 for future issuance under our 2019 Employee Stock Purchase Plan.



 

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RISK FACTORS

An investment in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. Before deciding whether to invest in our common stock, you should carefully consider the risks described below and those discussed under the caption entitled “Risk Factors” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2020, and any subsequent Annual Reports on Form 10-K and Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, which are incorporated by reference in this prospectus, together with other information in this prospectus, the information and documents incorporated by reference herein, and in any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering. If any of these risks actually occurs, our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flow could be seriously harmed. This could cause the trading price of our common stock to decline, resulting in a loss of all or part of your investment.

Risks Related to this Offering

We have broad discretion in the use of the net proceeds from this offering and may not use them effectively.

Our management will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds from this offering and could spend the proceeds in ways that do not improve our results of operations or enhance the value of our common stock. The failure by our management to apply these funds effectively could result in financial losses, and these financial losses could have a material adverse effect on our business, cause the price of our common stock to decline and delay the development of our product candidates. Pending their use, we may invest the net proceeds from this offering in a manner that does not produce income or that loses value.

It is not possible to predict the aggregate proceeds resulting from sales made under the Sales Agreement.

Subject to certain limitations in the Sales Agreement, and compliance with applicable law, we have the discretion to deliver a placement notice to SVB Leerink at any time throughout the term of the Sales Agreement. The number of shares that are sold through SVB Leerink after delivering a placement notice will fluctuate based on a number of factors, including the market price of our common stock during the sales period, any limits we may set with SVB Leerink in any applicable placement notice and the demand for our common stock. Because the price per share of each share sold pursuant to the Sales Agreement will fluctuate over time, it is not currently possible to predict the aggregate proceeds to be raised in connection with sales under the sales agreement.

The common stock offered hereby will be sold in “at the market offerings,” and investors who buy shares at different times will likely pay different prices.

Investors who purchase shares in this offering at different times will likely pay different prices, and accordingly may experience different levels of dilution and different outcomes in their investment results. We will have discretion, subject to market demand and the terms of the Sales Agreement, to vary the timing, prices and number of shares sold in this offering. In addition, subject to the final determination by our board of directors or any restrictions we may place in any applicable placement notice, there is no minimum or maximum sales price for shares to be sold in this offering. Investors may experience a decline in the value of the shares they purchase in this offering as a result of sales made at prices lower than the prices they paid.

If you purchase our common stock in this offering, you may incur immediate and substantial dilution in the book value of your shares.

The shares sold in this offering, if any, will be sold from time to time at various prices. However, the expected offering price of our common stock may be substantially higher than the net tangible book value per share of our common stock. Therefore, if you purchase shares of our common stock in this offering, you may pay a price per share that exceeds our as adjusted net tangible book value per share of common stock. Assuming that

 

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an aggregate of 2,068,965 shares of our common stock are sold at a price of $5.80 per share, which was the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Market on June 25, 2020, for aggregate gross proceeds of $12,000,000, and after deducting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, you would experience immediate dilution of $2.88 per share, representing the difference between our as adjusted net tangible book value per share as of March 31, 2020 after giving effect to this offering and the assumed offering price. To the extent outstanding options are exercised, you will experience further dilution. See the section titled “Dilution” below for a more detailed illustration of the dilution you would incur if you participate in this offering.

If you purchase shares of common stock in this offering, you may also experience future dilution as a result of future equity offerings.

To raise additional capital, we may in the future offer additional shares of our common stock or other securities convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock at prices that may not be the same as the price per share in this offering. We may sell shares or other securities in any other offering at a price per share that is less than the price per share paid by any investors in this offering, and investors purchasing shares or other securities in the future could have rights superior to existing stockholders. The price per share at which we sell additional shares of our common stock, or securities convertible or exchangeable into common stock, in future transactions may be higher or lower than the price per share paid by any investors in this offering.

Because we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our capital stock in the foreseeable future, capital appreciation, if any, will be your sole source of gain.

We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our capital stock. We currently intend to retain all of our future earnings, if any, to finance the growth and development of our business. In addition, the terms of any future debt agreements that we may enter into may preclude us from paying dividends without the lenders’ consent or at all. As a result, capital appreciation, if any, of our common stock will be your sole source of gain for the foreseeable future.

Sales of a significant number of shares of our common stock in the public markets, or the perception that such sales could occur, could depress the market price of our common stock.

Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market, or the perception in the market that the holders of a large number of shares of our common stock intend to sell shares of our common stock, could reduce the market price of our common stock. Our executive officers and directors and their affiliates and our significant stockholders hold a significant number of shares of our common stock. If such persons sell, or indicate an intention to sell, substantial amounts of our common stock in the public market, the trading price of our common stock could decline. Moreover, holders of a substantial number of shares of our common stock have rights, subject to specified conditions, to require us to file registration statements covering their shares or to include their shares in registration statements that we may file for ourselves or other stockholders.

 

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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus and the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus include “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Exchange Act, which involve substantial risks and uncertainties. All statements, other than statements of historical fact, in this prospectus or the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus, including statements regarding our strategy, future operations, future financial position, future revenues and profitability, projected costs, prospects, plans and objectives of management, are forward-looking statements. The words “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “might,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “target,” “would,” “could,” “continue” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words.

These forward-looking statements may include, among other things, statements about:

 

   

the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our clinical trials, business and operations;

 

   

our ongoing clinical trials, including our Phase 2b/3 PRISM trial of nalbuphine ER for the treatment of pruritus associated with prurigo nodularis;

 

   

our plans to develop and, if approved, subsequently commercialize nalbuphine ER for the treatment of pruritus associated with prurigo nodularis or for other serious neurologically mediated conditions;

 

   

our expectations regarding the timing for the initiation of clinical trials, completion of enrollment of such trials and the reporting of data from such trials;

 

   

the timing of and our ability to submit applications for, and to obtain and maintain regulatory approvals for, nalbuphine ER;

 

   

our expectations regarding our ability to fund our operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements with our cash and cash equivalents;

 

   

our estimates regarding expenses, future revenue, timing of any future revenue, capital requirements and needs for additional financing;

 

   

the impact of government laws and regulations;

 

   

our competitive position;

 

   

our ability to establish and maintain collaborations or obtain additional funding; and

 

   

our intended use of proceeds from this offering.

We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements, and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Actual results or events could differ materially from the plans, intentions and expectations disclosed in the forward-looking statements we make. We have included important factors in the cautionary statements included in this prospectus and the documents we incorporate by reference herein, particularly in the section titled “Risk Factors” in this prospectus and in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 and our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended March 31, 2020, that we believe could cause actual results or events to differ materially from the forward-looking statements that we make. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures or investments we may make.

You should read this prospectus and the documents we incorporate by reference herein and have filed or incorporated by reference herein completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may differ materially from what we expect. We do not assume any obligation to update any forward-looking statements except as required by applicable law.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We may issue and sell shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $12,000,000 from time to time. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to close this offering, the actual public offering amount, commissions to SVB Leerink and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. There can be no assurance that we will sell any shares under the Sales Agreement.

We currently intend to use the net proceeds from this offering, if any, to fund the clinical development of nalbuphine ER and for working capital and other general corporate purposes.

The amounts and timing of our use of the net proceeds from the sale of securities in this offering, if any, will depend on a number of factors, including the progress of our clinical development of nalbuphine ER, the status of and results from our clinical trials, including our ongoing PRISM trial as well as the additional Phase 3 clinical trial we will need to conduct for nalbuphine ER for pruritus associated with prurigo nodularis, the timing of regulatory submissions and the outcome of regulatory review, as well as any collaborations that we may enter into with third parties and any unforeseen cash needs. As of the date of this prospectus, we cannot specify with certainty all of the particular uses for the net proceeds to us, if any, from this offering. Accordingly, our management will have broad discretion in the timing and application of these proceeds. Pending application of the net proceeds as described above, we intend to temporarily invest the proceeds in short-term, interest-bearing instruments.

 

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DILUTION

If you invest in our common stock in this offering, your ownership interest will be diluted immediately to the extent of the difference between the price per share of our common stock you pay in this offering and the as adjusted net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately after giving effect to this offering.

We calculate net tangible book value per share of our common stock by dividing net tangible book value, which we calculate as our total assets less our total liabilities, by the number of outstanding shares of our common stock. Dilution as presented below represents the difference between the assumed price per share paid by purchasers of shares of our common stock in this offering and the as adjusted net tangible book value per share of our common stock after giving effect to this offering. Our historical net tangible book value as of March 31, 2020 was approximately $46.8 million, or $2.62 per share of our common stock.

After giving effect to the assumed sale by us of shares of our common stock pursuant to this prospectus in the aggregate amount of $12,000,000 at an assumed offering price of $5.80 per share, which was the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Market on June 25, 2020, and after deducting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, our as adjusted net tangible book value as of March 31, 2020 would have been $58.2, or $2.92 per share of our common stock. This represents an immediate increase in the as adjusted net tangible book value of $0.30 per share to our existing stockholders and an immediate dilution in as adjusted net tangible book value of $2.88 per share to new investors participating in this offering. Dilution per share to new investors is determined by subtracting as adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering from the assumed offering price per share paid by new investors. The following table illustrates this dilution on a per share basis:

 

Assumed offering price per share

      $ 5.80  

Net tangible book value per share as of March 31, 2020

   $ 2.62     

Increase in net tangible book value per share attributable to new investors purchasing shares in this offering

   $ 0.30     
  

 

 

    

As adjusted net tangible book value per share after giving effect to this offering

      $ 2.92  
     

 

 

 

Dilution per share to new investors purchasing shares in this offering

      $ 2.88  
     

 

 

 

The table above assumes for illustrative purposes that an aggregate of 2,068,965 shares of our common stock are sold pursuant to this prospectus at an offering price of $5.80 per share, which was the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Market on June 25, 2020, for aggregate gross proceeds of $12,000,000. The shares of our common stock sold in this offering, if any, will be sold from time to time at various prices. The as adjusted information is illustrative only and will adjust based on the actual price to the public, the actual number of shares sold and other terms of the offering determined at the time shares of our common stock are sold pursuant to this prospectus.

An increase of $1.00 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price of $5.80 per share shown in the table above, assuming all of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $12,000,000 is sold at that price, would result in an as adjusted net tangible book value per share after the offering of $2.97 per share and would increase the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering to $3.83 per share, after deducting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. A decrease of $1.00 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price of $5.80 per share shown in the table above, assuming all of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $12,000,000 is sold at that price, would result in an as adjusted net tangible book value per share after the offering of $2.86 per share and would decrease the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering to $1.94 per share, after deducting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

 

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The above discussion and table are based on 17,834,570 shares of our common stock issued and outstanding as of March 31, 2020 and excludes the following:

 

   

2,205,535 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of stock options outstanding as of March 31, 2020 at a weighted-average exercise price of $6.03 per share;

 

   

1,131,554 shares of common stock reserved as of March 31, 2020 for future issuance under our 2019 Stock Incentive Plan; and

 

   

333,451 shares of common stock reserved as of March 31, 2020 for future issuance under our 2019 Employee Stock Purchase Plan.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

The following description of our capital stock is intended as a summary only and therefore is not a complete description of our capital stock. This description is based upon, and is qualified by reference to, our certificate of incorporation, our by-laws and applicable provisions of Delaware corporate law. You should read our certificate of incorporation and by-laws, which are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, for the provisions that are important to you.

Our authorized capital stock consists of 200,000,000 shares of common stock and 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock. As of May 31, 2020, 17,834,570 shares of common stock were outstanding and no shares of preferred stock were outstanding.

Common Stock

Annual Meeting. Annual meetings of our stockholders are held on the date designated in accordance with our by-laws. Written notice must be mailed to each stockholder entitled to vote not less than ten nor more than 60 days before the date of the meeting. The presence in person or by proxy of the holders of record of a majority in voting power of our issued and outstanding shares entitled to vote at such meeting constitutes a quorum for the transaction of business at meetings of the stockholders. Special meetings of the stockholders may be called for any purpose by the board of directors and shall be called by the chairman of the board or the secretary upon the written request, stating the purpose of such meeting, of the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of all classes of capital stock entitled to vote at the meeting. Except as may be otherwise provided by applicable law, our certificate of incorporation or our by-laws, all elections shall be decided by a plurality, and all other questions shall be decided by a majority of the votes cast by stockholders entitled to vote thereon at a duly held meeting of stockholders at which a quorum is present.

Voting Rights. Each holder of common stock is entitled to one vote for each share held of record on all matters to be voted upon by stockholders. The common stock does not have cumulative voting rights.

Dividends. Subject to the rights, powers and preferences of any outstanding preferred stock, and except as provided by law or in our certificate of incorporation, dividends may be declared and paid or set aside for payment on the common stock out of legally available assets or funds when and as declared by the board of directors.

Liquidation, Dissolution and Winding Up. In the event of our liquidation or dissolution, the holders of our common stock are entitled to receive proportionately all assets available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of all debts and other liabilities and subject to the prior rights of any outstanding preferred stock. The rights, preferences and privileges of holders of our common stock are subject to and may be adversely affected by the rights of the holders of shares of any series of our preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future.

Other Rights. Holders of the common stock have no right to:

 

   

convert the stock into any other security;

 

   

have the stock redeemed;

 

   

purchase additional stock; or

 

   

maintain their proportionate ownership interest.

Holders of shares of the common stock are not required to make additional capital contributions.

 

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Transfer Agent and Registrar. Computershare Trust Company, N.A. is transfer agent and registrar for the common stock.

Exchange Listing. Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “TRVI.”

Preferred Stock

We are authorized to issue “blank check” preferred stock, which may be issued in one or more series upon authorization of our board of directors. Our board of directors is authorized to fix the designations, powers, preferences and the relative, participating, optional or other special rights and any qualifications, limitations and restrictions of the shares of each series of preferred stock. The authorized shares of our preferred stock are available for issuance without further action by our stockholders, unless such action is required by applicable law or the rules of any stock exchange on which our securities may be listed. If the approval of our stockholders is not required for the issuance of shares of our preferred stock, our board may determine not to seek stockholder approval.

Provisions of Our Certificate of Incorporation and By-laws and Delaware Law That May Have Anti-Takeover Effects

Board of Directors. Our certificate of incorporation and by-laws provide for a board of directors divided as nearly equally as possible into three classes. Each class is elected to a term expiring at the annual meeting of stockholders held in the third year following the year of such election. The number of directors comprising our board of directors is fixed from time to time by the board of directors.

Removal of Directors by Stockholders. Delaware law provides that members of our board of directors may only be removed for cause by a vote of the holders of 75% of the outstanding shares entitled to vote on the election of the directors.

Stockholder Nomination of Directors. Our by-laws provide that a stockholder must notify us in writing of any stockholder nomination of a director not more than 120 days and not less than the 90 days prior to the first anniversary of the preceding year’s annual meeting; provided, that if the date of the annual meeting is advanced or delayed by more than 30 days from such anniversary date, notice by the stockholder to be timely must be so delivered not earlier than the 120th day prior to the date of such annual meeting and not later than the close of business on the later of (x) the 90th day prior to the date of such meeting and (y) the 10th day following the day on which notice of the date of such annual meeting was mailed or public disclosure of the date of such annual meeting was made, whichever occurs first.

No Action By Written Consent. Our certificate of incorporation provides that our stockholders may not act by written consent and may only act at duly called meetings of stockholders.

Delaware Law. We are subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, or the DGCL. Subject to certain exceptions, Section 203 prevents a publicly held Delaware corporation from engaging in a “business combination” with any “interested stockholder” for three years following the date that the person became an interested stockholder, unless either the interested stockholder attained such status with the approval of our board of directors, the business combination is approved by our board of directors and stockholders in a prescribed manner or the interested stockholder acquired at least 85% of our outstanding voting stock in the transaction in which it became an interested stockholder. A “business combination” includes, among other things, a merger or consolidation involving us and the “interested stockholder” and the sale of more than 10% of our assets. In general, an “interested stockholder” is any entity or person beneficially owning 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock and any entity or person affiliated with or controlling or controlled by such entity or person.

Exclusive Forum Selection. Our certificate of incorporation provides that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware (or, if the Court of Chancery of

 

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the State of Delaware does not have jurisdiction, the federal district court for the District of Delaware) shall be the sole and exclusive forum for (1) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of our company, (2) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers, other employees or stockholders to our company or our stockholders, (3) any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the DGCL or as to which the DGCL confers jurisdiction on the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware or (4) any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of our certificate of incorporation or by-laws (in each case, as they may be amended from time to time) or governed by the internal affairs doctrine. Our certificate of incorporation further provides that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the federal district courts of the United States of America shall, to the fullest extent permitted by law, be the sole and exclusive forum for the resolution of any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act. Neither of these choice of forum provisions would affect suits brought to enforce any liability or duty created by the Exchange Act or the rules and regulations thereunder, jurisdiction over which is exclusively vested by statute in the United States federal courts, or any other claim for which United States federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction. Although our certificate of incorporation contains the choice of forum provisions described above, it is possible that a court could rule that such provisions are inapplicable for a particular claim or action.

Registration Rights

We are party to a second amended and restated investors’ rights agreement, which we refer to as the investors’ rights agreement, under which holders of a total of 10,325,257 shares of our common stock have the right to require us to register these shares under the Securities Act under specified circumstances. We refer to the shares with these registration rights as registrable securities. After registration pursuant to these rights, the registrable securities will become freely tradable without restriction under the Securities Act. In addition, in connection with

a private placement to New Enterprise Associates, or NEA, in May 2019, we granted NEA the right to require us to register under the Securities Act under specified circumstances the shares to NEA in such private placement, and upon such registration, such shares would become freely tradable without restriction under the Securities Act.

Demand and Form S-3 Registration Rights. Subject to specified limitations and conditions set forth in the investors’ rights agreement, at any time, the holders of at least a majority of the then outstanding registrable securities may demand that we register registrable securities then outstanding under the Securities Act for purposes of a public offering having an aggregate offering price to the public of not less than $10.0 million, net of certain expenses, underwriting discounts and selling commissions. We are not obligated to file a registration statement pursuant to this provision on more than two occasions. In addition, subject to specified limitations and conditions set forth in the investors’ rights agreement, at any time when we are eligible to file a registration statement on Form S-3, holders of the registrable securities then outstanding may request that we register their registrable securities on Form S-3 for purposes of a public offering for which the reasonably anticipated aggregate offering price to the public, net of certain expenses, underwriting discounts and selling commissions, would exceed $1.0 million. We are not obligated to file a registration statement pursuant to this provision on more than two occasions in any 12-month period.

Incidental Registration Rights. If we propose to register for our own account or for the account of our other stockholders any of our common stock under the Securities Act, the holders of registrable securities will be entitled to notice of the registration and, subject to specified exceptions, have the right to require us to register all or a portion of the registrable securities then held by them in that registration. In the event that any registration in which the holders of registrable securities participate pursuant to our investors’ rights agreement is an underwritten public offering, we have agreed to enter into an underwriting agreement in usual and customary form and use our commercially reasonable efforts to facilitate such offering.

Expenses and Indemnification. Pursuant to the investors’ rights agreement, we are required to pay all registration expenses, including all registration and filing fees, exchange listing fees, printing expenses, fees and expenses of

 

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one counsel selected by the selling stockholders to represent the selling stockholders, state Blue Sky fees and expenses, and the expense of any special audits incident to or required by any such registration, but excluding underwriting discounts, selling commissions, stock transfer taxes and the fees and expenses of the selling stockholders’ own counsel (other than the counsel selected to represent all selling stockholders). The investors’ rights agreement contains customary cross-indemnification provisions, pursuant to which we are obligated to indemnify the selling stockholders in the event of material misstatements or alleged material misstatements or material omissions or alleged material omissions in the registration statement attributable to us, or any violation or alleged violation, whether by action or inaction, by us under the Securities Act; the Exchange Act; any state securities or Blue Sky law or any rule or regulation promulgated under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act or any state securities or Blue Sky law in connection with such registration statement or the qualification or compliance of the offering, and they are obligated to indemnify us for material misstatements or omissions in the registration statement attributable to them.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We have entered into a Sales Agreement with SVB Leerink LLC, or SVB Leerink, under which we may issue and sell up to $12.0 million of our common stock from time to time through SVB Leerink as our sales agent. Sales of our common stock, if any, will be made by any method that is deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415 under the Securities Act, including sales made directly on or through the Nasdaq Global Market, on or through any other existing trading market for the common stock or to or through a market maker.

SVB Leerink will offer our common stock subject to the terms and conditions of the Sales Agreement on a daily basis or as otherwise agreed upon by us and SVB Leerink. We will designate the maximum number or amount of common stock to be sold through SVB Leerink on a daily basis or otherwise determine such maximum number or amount together with SVB Leerink. Subject to the terms and conditions of the Sales Agreement, SVB Leerink will use commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable state and federal laws, rules and regulations and the rules of The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC to sell on our behalf all of the common stock requested to be sold by us. We may instruct SVB Leerink not to sell common stock if the sales cannot be effected at or above a minimum price designated by us in any such instruction. SVB Leerink or we may suspend the offering of our common stock being made through SVB Leerink under the Sales Agreement upon proper notice to the other party. SVB Leerink and we each have the right, by giving written notice as specified in the Sales Agreement, to terminate the Sales Agreement in each party’s sole discretion at any time. The offering of our common stock pursuant to the Sales Agreement will otherwise terminate upon the termination of the Sales Agreement as provided therein.

The compensation payable to SVB Leerink as sales agent will be an amount equal to 3.0% of the gross proceeds of any shares of common stock sold through it pursuant to the Sales Agreement. We have also agreed to reimburse SVB Leerink for actual outside legal expenses incurred by SVB Leerink in connection with this offering, including SVB Leerink’s counsel fees in an amount up to $50,000 in connection with the filing of this prospectus, plus an additional amount of up to $15,000 in connection with determining our compliance with the rules and regulations of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc., or FINRA. We have also agreed to reimburse SVB Leerink for outside legal expenses in an amount up to $15,000 for each fiscal quarter thereafter during or with respect to which SVB Leerink conducts bring-down due diligence. In accordance with FINRA Rule 5110, these reimbursed fees and expenses are deemed sales compensation to SVB Leerink in connection with this offering. We estimate that the total expenses of the offering payable by us, excluding commissions payable to SVB Leerink under the Sales Agreement, will be approximately $250,000.

The remaining sales proceeds, after deducting any expenses payable by us and any transaction fees imposed by any governmental, regulatory or self-regulatory organization in connection with the sales of our common stock, will equal our net proceeds for the sale of such common stock.

SVB Leerink will provide written confirmation to us no later than the next succeeding trading day on the Nasdaq Global Market after each day on which common stock is sold through it as sales agent under the Sales Agreement. Each confirmation will include the number or amount of shares sold through it as sales agent on that day, the volume-weighted average price of the shares sold and the net proceeds to us from such sales.

We will report at least quarterly the number of shares of common stock sold through SVB Leerink under the Sales Agreement, the net proceeds to us and the compensation paid by us to SVB Leerink in connection with the sales of common stock during the relevant period.

Settlement for sales of common stock will occur, unless the parties agree otherwise, on the second trading day following the date on which any sales were made in return for payment of the net proceeds to us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

In connection with the sale of the common stock on our behalf pursuant to the Sales Agreement, SVB Leerink will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation paid to SVB Leerink will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have agreed in the Sales

 

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Agreement to provide indemnification and contribution to SVB Leerink with respect to certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act and the Exchange Act. As sales agent, SVB Leerink will not engage in any transactions that stabilize our common stock.

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Market and trades under the symbol “TRVI.” The transfer agent of our common stock is Computershare Trust Company, N.A.

SVB Leerink and/or its affiliates have provided, and may in the future provide, various investment banking, lending and other financial services for us for which services they have received, and may in the future receive, customary fees.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

The validity of the common stock being offered by this prospectus will be passed upon by Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP, Boston, Massachusetts. Covington & Burling LLP, New York, New York, is counsel to SVB Leerink in connection with this offering.

EXPERTS

The consolidated financial statements of Trevi Therapeutics, Inc. appearing in Trevi Therapeutics, Inc.’s Annual Report (Form 10-K) for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018 have been audited by Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, as set forth in their report thereon, included therein, and incorporated herein by reference. Such consolidated financial statements are incorporated herein by reference in reliance upon such report given on the authority of such firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public over the Internet at the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. Copies of certain information filed by us with the SEC are also available on our website at www.trevitherapeutics.com. Our website is not a part of this prospectus and is not incorporated by reference in this prospectus. Our website address is included in this document as an inactive textual reference only.

This prospectus is part of a registration statement we filed with the SEC. This prospectus omits some information contained in the registration statement in accordance with SEC rules and regulations. You should review the information and exhibits in the registration statement for further information about us and our subsidiary and the securities we are offering. Statements in this prospectus concerning any document we filed as an exhibit to the registration statement or that we otherwise filed with the SEC are not intended to be comprehensive and are qualified by reference to these filings. You should review the complete document to evaluate these statements. You can obtain a copy of the registration statement from the SEC’s website.

 

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INFORMATION INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference into this prospectus much of the information we file with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those publicly available documents. The information that we incorporate by reference is considered to be part of this prospectus. Because we are incorporating by reference future filings with the SEC, this prospectus is continually updated and those future filings may modify or supersede some of the information included or incorporated in this prospectus. This means that you must look at all of the SEC filings that we incorporate by reference to determine if any of the statements in this prospectus or in any document previously incorporated by reference have been modified or superseded. This prospectus incorporates by reference the documents listed below (File No. 001-38886) and any future filings we make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (in each case, other than those documents or the portions of those documents not deemed to be filed), until the offering of the securities under the registration statement is terminated or completed:

 

   

Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, filed on March 16, 2020, including the information specifically incorporated by reference into the Annual Report on Form 10-K from our definitive proxy statement for the 2020 Annual Meeting of Stockholders;

 

   

Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended March 31, 2020, filed on May 7, 2020;

 

   

Current Reports on Form 8-K filed on January 6, 2020, February 18, 2020, and June 17, 2020; and

 

   

The description of our common stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A filed on April 29, 2019, including any amendments or reports filed for the purpose of updating such description.

You may request a copy of these filings, at no cost, by writing or telephoning us at the following address or telephone number:

Trevi Therapeutics, Inc.

195 Church Street, 14th Floor

New Haven, Connecticut 06510

(203) 304-2499

 

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Up to $12,000,000

 

LOGO

Common Stock

 

 

PROSPECTUS

 

 

SVB Leerink LLC

 

 

                    , 2020

 

 

 


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PART II

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

Item 14. Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution.

Set forth below are estimates (except in the case of the SEC registration fee and the FINRA filing fee) of the amount of fees and expenses to be incurred in connection with the issuance and distribution of the offered securities, other than underwriting discounts and commissions.

 

SEC registration fee

   $ 19,470  

FINRA filing fee

   $ 23,000  

Printing and engraving

              (1) 

Accounting services

              (1) 

Legal fees of registrant’s counsel

              (1) 

Transfer agent’s, trustee’s and depositary’s fees and expenses

              (1) 

Miscellaneous

              (1) 

Total

   $   (1) 

 

(1)

These fees and expenses are calculated based on the securities offered and the number of issuances and accordingly are not estimated at this time and will be reflected in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Item 15. Indemnification of Directors and Officers.

Section 102 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, or the DGCL, permits a corporation to eliminate the personal liability of its directors to the corporation or its stockholders for monetary damages for a breach of fiduciary duty as a director, except where the director breached his or her duty of loyalty, failed to act in good faith, engaged in intentional misconduct or knowingly violated a law, authorized the payment of a dividend or approved a stock repurchase in violation of Delaware corporate law or obtained an improper personal benefit. Our certificate of incorporation provides that no director shall be personally liable to us or our stockholders for monetary damages for any breach of fiduciary duty as a director, notwithstanding any provision of law imposing such liability, except to the extent that the DGCL prohibits the elimination or limitation of liability of directors for breaches of fiduciary duty.

Section 145 of the DGCL provides that a corporation has the power to indemnify a director, officer, employee or agent of the corporation and certain other persons serving at the request of the corporation in related capacities against expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlements actually and reasonably incurred by the person in connection with an action, suit or proceeding to which he or she is or is threatened to be made a party by reason of such position, if such person acted in good faith and in a manner he or she reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation, and, in any criminal action or proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe his or her conduct was unlawful, except that, in the case of actions brought by or in the right of the corporation, no indemnification shall be made with respect to any claim, issue or matter as to which such person shall have been adjudged to be liable to the corporation unless and only to the extent that the Court of Chancery or other adjudicating court determines that, despite the adjudication of liability but in view of all of the circumstances of the case, such person is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnification for such expenses which the Court of Chancery or such other court shall deem proper.

Our certificate of incorporation provides that we will indemnify each person who was or is a party or threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative (other than an action by or in the right of us), by reason of the fact that he or she is or was, or has agreed to become, our director or officer, or is or was serving, or has agreed to serve, at our request as a director, officer, partner, employee or trustee of, or in a similar capacity with, another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise (all such persons being referred to as an Indemnitee), or by reason of any action alleged to have been taken or omitted in such capacity, against all


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expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred in connection with such action, suit or proceeding and any appeal therefrom if such Indemnitee acted in good faith and in a manner he or she reasonably believed to be in, or not opposed to, our best interests, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, he or she had no reasonable cause to believe his or her conduct was unlawful.

Our certificate of incorporation also provides that we will indemnify any Indemnitee who was or is a party to an action or suit by or in the right of us to procure a judgment in our favor by reason of the fact that the Indemnitee is or was, or has agreed to become, our director or officer, or is or was serving, or has agreed to serve, at our request as a director, officer, partner, employee or trustee of, or in a similar capacity with, another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, or by reason of any action alleged to have been taken or omitted in such capacity, against all expenses (including attorneys’ fees) and, to the extent permitted by law, amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred in connection with such action, suit or proceeding, and any appeal therefrom, if the Indemnitee acted in good faith and in a manner he or she reasonably believed to be in, or not opposed to, our best interests, except that no indemnification shall be made with respect to any claim, issue or matter as to which such person shall have been adjudged to be liable to us, unless a court determines that, despite such adjudication but in view of all of the circumstances, he or she is entitled to indemnification of such expenses. Notwithstanding the foregoing, to the extent that any Indemnitee has been successful, on the merits or otherwise, he or she will be indemnified by us against all expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred by him or her or on his or her behalf in connection therewith. If we do not assume the defense, expenses must be advanced to an Indemnitee under certain circumstances.

In addition, we have entered into indemnification agreements with all of our directors and executive officers. In general, these agreements provide that we will indemnify the executive officer or director to the fullest extent permitted by law for claims arising in his or her capacity as an executive officer or director of our company or in connection with his or her service at our request for another corporation or entity. The indemnification agreements also provide for procedures that will apply in the event that an executive officer or director makes a claim for indemnification and establish certain presumptions that are favorable to the executive officer or director.

We maintain a general liability insurance policy that covers certain liabilities of our directors and officers arising out of claims based on acts or omissions in their capacities as directors or officers.

Insofar as the foregoing provisions permit indemnification of directors, executive officers, or persons controlling us for liability arising under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, we have been informed that, in the opinion of the SEC, such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.


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Item 16. Exhibits.

 

Exhibit No.

  

Description

  1.1    Sales Agreement, dated June 26, 2020, by and between the Registrant and SVB Leerink LLC
  1.2*    Form of Underwriting Agreement
  4.1    Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Registrant (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K (File No. 001-38886) filed with the SEC on May 9, 2019)
  4.2    Amended and Restated Bylaws of the Registrant (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.2 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K (File No. 001-38886) filed with the SEC on May 9, 2019)
  4.3    Form of Senior Indenture
  4.4    Form of Subordinated Indenture
  4.5    Form of Senior Note
  4.6    Form of Subordinated Note
  4.7*    Form of Warrant Agreement
  4.8*    Form of Unit Agreement
  5.1    Opinion of Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP
23.1    Consent of Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm for the Registrant
23.2    Consent of Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1)
24    Powers of Attorney (included in the signature pages to the Registration Statement)
25.1**    Statement of Eligibility on Form T-1 under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, of the Trustee under the Senior Indenture
25.2**    Statement of Eligibility on Form T-1 under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, of the Trustee under the Subordinated Indenture

 

*

To be filed by amendment or by a Current Report on Form 8-K.

**

To be filed pursuant to Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.

Item 17. Undertakings.

The undersigned Registrant hereby undertakes:

 

  (a)(1)

To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

 

  (i)

to include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”);

 

  (ii)

to reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of this registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in this registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than a 20 percent change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and


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  (iii)

to include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in this registration statement or any material change to such information in this registration statement;

provided, however, that paragraphs (a)(1)(i), (a)(1)(ii) and (a)(1)(iii) do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Commission by the Registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), that are incorporated by reference in this registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of this registration statement.

 

  (2)

That, for the purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at the time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

  (3)

To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

 

  (4)

That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act to any purchaser:

 

  (i)

each prospectus filed by the Registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

 

  (ii)

each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii) or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.

 

  (5)

That, for the purpose of determining liability of the Registrant under the Securities Act to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned Registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned Registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned Registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

 

  (i)

any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned Registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

 

  (ii)

any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned Registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned Registrant;

 

  (iii)

the portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned Registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned Registrant; and


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  (iv)

any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by such undersigned Registrant to the purchaser.

 

  (6)

That, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act:

 

  (i)

the information omitted from the form of prospectus filed as part of the registration statement in reliance upon Rule 430A and contained in the form of prospectus filed by the Registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(1) or (4) or 497(h) under the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the time it was declared effective; and

 

  (ii)

each post-effective amendment that contains a form of prospectus shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

  (b)

The undersigned Registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each filing of the Registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act) that is incorporated by reference in this registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

  (c)

The undersigned Registrant hereby undertake to file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the Commission under Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

  (d)

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the Registrant pursuant to the indemnification provisions described herein, or otherwise, the Registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the Registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the Registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the Registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.


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SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the Registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this Registration Statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the city of New Haven, State of Connecticut on June 26, 2020.

 

TREVI THERAPEUTICS, INC.
By:  

/s/ Jennifer Good

  Name: Jennifer Good
  Title: President and Chief Executive Officer

SIGNATURES AND POWER OF ATTORNEY

We, the undersigned officers and directors of Trevi Therapeutics, Inc., hereby severally constitute and appoint Jennifer Good and Christopher Seiter, and each of them singly, our true and lawful attorneys with full power to any of them, and to each of them singly, to sign for us and in our names in the capacities indicated below the Registration Statement on Form S-3 filed herewith and any and all amendments (including post-effective amendments) to said Registration Statement, and any registration statement filed pursuant to Rule 462 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, in connection with said Registration Statement, and to file or cause to be filed the same, with all exhibits thereto and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, and generally to do all such things in our name and on our behalf in our capacities as officers and directors to enable Trevi Therapeutics, Inc. to comply with the provisions of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and all requirements of the Securities and Exchange Commission, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys, and each of them, or their substitute or substitutes, shall do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, this Registration Statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.

 

Signature

 

Title

 

Date

/s/ Jennifer Good

Jennifer Good

  President and Chief Executive Officer, and Director (Principal Executive Officer)   June 26, 2020

/s/ Christopher Seiter

Christopher Seiter

  Chief Financial Officer (Principal Financial Officer)   June 26, 2020

/s/ Frank Muscolo

Frank Muscolo

  Controller (Principal Accounting Officer)   June 26, 2020

/s/ David Meeker, M.D.

David Meeker, M.D.

  Chairman of the Board   June 26, 2020

/s/ James Cassella, Ph.D.

James Cassella, Ph.D.

  Director   June 26, 2020

/s/ Michael Heffernan

Michael Heffernan

  Director   June 26, 2020

/s/ Edward Mathers

Edward Mathers

  Director   June 26, 2020

/s/ Anne VanLent

Anne VanLent

  Director   June 26, 2020
EX-1.1

Exhibit 1.1

Trevi Therapeutics, Inc.

Shares of Common Stock

($0.001 par value per share)

SALES AGREEMENT

June 26, 2020

SVB LEERINK LLC

1301 Avenue of the Americas, 12th Floor

New York, New York 10019

Ladies and Gentlemen:

Trevi Therapeutics, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), confirms its agreement (this “Agreement”) with SVB Leerink LLC (the “Agent”), as follows:

1. Issuance and Sale of Shares. The Company agrees that, from time to time during the term of this Agreement, on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein, it may issue and sell through the Agent up to $12,000,000 of shares of common stock, $0.001 par value per share, of the Company (the “Common Stock”), subject to the limitations set forth in Section 5(c) (the “Placement Shares”). Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained herein, the parties hereto agree that compliance with the limitation set forth in this Section 1 on the aggregate gross sales price of Placement Shares that may be issued and sold under this Agreement from time to time shall be the sole responsibility of the Company, and that the Agent shall have no obligation in connection with such compliance. The issuance and sale of Placement Shares through the Agent will be effected pursuant to the Registration Statement (as defined below) to be filed by the Company with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”) on June 26, 2020 and after such Registration Statement has been declared effective by the Commission, although nothing in this Agreement shall be construed as requiring the Company to issue any Placement Shares.

The Company has prepared and will file, in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (collectively, the “Securities Act”), with the Commission a registration statement on Form S-3, including (a) a base prospectus relating to certain securities, including the Common Stock, to be issued from time to time by the Company, and (b) a preliminary prospectus specifically relating to the Placement Shares to be issued from time to time pursuant to this Agreement (the “Preliminary Sales Agreement Prospectus”), both of which incorporate by reference documents that the Company has filed or will file in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (collectively, the “Exchange Act”). The Company will furnish to the Agent, for use by the Agent, copies of the final sales agreement prospectus (the “Sales Agreement Prospectus”) included as part of such registration statement at the time the registration statement becomes effective, which Sales Agreement Prospectus will be filed under Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act. Except where the context otherwise requires, such registration statement, including all documents filed as part thereof or incorporated by reference therein, and including any information contained in a Prospectus (as defined below) subsequently filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act or deemed to be a part of such registration


statement pursuant to Rule 430B or Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, is herein called the “Registration Statement.” The Sales Agreement Prospectus, including all documents incorporated therein by reference, included in the Registration Statement, in the form in which such Sales Agreement Prospectus has most recently been filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act, together with any “issuer free writing prospectus” (as used herein, as defined in Rule 433 under the Securities Act (“Rule 433”)), relating to the Placement Shares that (i) is required to be filed with the Commission by the Company or (ii) is exempt from filing pursuant to Rule 433(d)(5)(i), in each case, in the form filed or required to be filed with the Commission or, if not required to be filed, in the form retained in the Company’s records pursuant to Rule 433(g), is herein called the “Prospectus.”

Any reference herein to the Registration Statement, the Sales Agreement Prospectus, the Prospectus or any issuer free writing prospectus shall be deemed to refer to and include the documents, if any, that are or are deemed to be incorporated by reference therein (the “Incorporated Documents”), including, unless the context otherwise requires, the documents, if any, filed as exhibits to such Incorporated Documents. Any reference herein to the terms “amend,” “amendment” or “supplement” with respect to the Registration Statement, the Sales Agreement Prospectus, the Prospectus or any issuer free writing prospectus shall be deemed to refer to and include the filing of any document under the Exchange Act on or after the most-recent effective date of the Registration Statement, or the respective dates of the Sales Agreement Prospectus, the Prospectus or such issuer free writing prospectus, as the case may be, and incorporated therein by reference. For purposes of this Agreement, all references to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto shall be deemed to include the most recent copy filed with the Commission pursuant to its Electronic Data Gathering Analysis and Retrieval System or, if applicable, the Interactive Data Electronic Application system when used by the Commission (collectively, “EDGAR”).

2. Placements. Each time that the Company wishes to issue and sell any Placement Shares through the Agent hereunder (each, a “Placement”), it will notify the Agent by email notice (or other method mutually agreed to in writing by the parties) (each such notice, a “Placement Notice”) containing the parameters in accordance with which it desires such Placement Shares to be sold, which at a minimum shall include the maximum number or amount of Placement Shares to be sold, the time period during which sales are requested to be made, any limitation on the number or amount of Placement Shares that may be sold in any one Trading Day (as defined in Section 3) and any minimum price below which sales may not be made, a form of which containing such minimum sales parameters is attached hereto as Schedule 1. The Placement Notice must originate from one of the individuals authorized to act on behalf of the Company and set forth on Schedule 2 (with a copy to each of the other individuals from the Company listed on such Schedule 2), and shall be addressed to each of the individuals from the Agent set forth on Schedule 2, as such Schedule 2 may be updated by either party from time to time by sending a written notice containing a revised Schedule 2 to the other party in the manner provided in Section 12 (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the Company set forth on Schedule 2, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply). The Placement Notice shall be effective upon receipt by the Agent unless and until (i) in accordance with the notice requirements set forth in Section 4, the Agent declines to accept the terms contained therein for any reason, in its sole discretion, within two Trading Days of the date the Agent receives the Placement Notice, (ii) in accordance with the notice requirements set forth in Section 4, the Agent suspends sales under the Placement Notice for any reason in its sole discretion, (iii) the entire amount of the Placement Shares has been sold pursuant to this Agreement, (iv) in accordance with the notice requirements set forth in Section 4, the Company suspends sales under or terminates the Placement Notice for any reason in its sole discretion, (v) the Company issues a subsequent Placement Notice and explicitly indicates that its parameters supersede those contained in the earlier dated Placement Notice or (vi) this Agreement has been terminated pursuant to the provisions of Section 11. The amount of any

 

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discount, commission or other compensation to be paid by the Company to the Agent in connection with the sale of the Placement Shares effected through the Agent shall be calculated in accordance with the terms set forth in Schedule 3. It is expressly acknowledged and agreed that neither the Company nor the Agent will have any obligation whatsoever with respect to a Placement or any Placement Shares unless and until the Company delivers a Placement Notice to the Agent and the Agent does not decline such Placement Notice pursuant to the terms set forth above, and then only upon the terms specified therein and herein. In the event of a conflict between the terms of this Agreement and the terms of a Placement Notice, the terms of the Placement Notice will control with respect to the matters covered thereby.

3. Sale of Placement Shares by the Agent. On the basis of the representations and warranties herein contained and subject to the terms and conditions herein set forth, including Section 5(c), upon the Agent’s acceptance of the terms of a Placement Notice as provided in Section 2, and unless the sale of the Placement Shares described therein has been declined, suspended or otherwise terminated in accordance with the terms of this Agreement, the Agent, for the period specified in the Placement Notice, will use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable state and federal laws, rules and regulations and the rules of the Nasdaq Global Market (“Nasdaq”) to sell such Placement Shares up to the number or amount specified in, and otherwise in accordance with the terms of, such Placement Notice. The Agent will provide written confirmation to the Company (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the Company set forth on Schedule 2, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply) no later than the opening of the Trading Day (as defined below) immediately following the Trading Day on which it has made sales of Placement Shares hereunder setting forth the number or amount of Placement Shares sold on such Trading Day, the volume-weighted average price of the Placement Shares sold and the Net Proceeds (as defined below) payable to the Company. Unless otherwise specified by the Company in a Placement Notice, the Agent may sell Placement Shares by any method permitted by law deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415 of the Securities Act, including sales made directly on or through Nasdaq, on or through any other existing trading market for the Common Stock or to or through a market maker. If expressly authorized by the Company (including in a Placement Notice), the Agent may also sell Placement Shares in negotiated transactions. Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 6(ss), except as may be otherwise agreed by the Company and the Agent, the Agent shall not purchase Placement Shares on a principal basis pursuant to this Agreement unless the Company and the Agent enter into a separate written agreement setting forth the terms of such sale. The Company acknowledges and agrees that (i) there can be no assurance that the Agent will be successful in selling Placement Shares, (ii) the Agent will incur no liability or obligation to the Company or any other person or entity if it does not sell Placement Shares for any reason other than a failure by the Agent to use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable state and federal laws, rules and regulations and the rules of Nasdaq to sell such Placement Shares as required under this Agreement and (iii) the Agent shall be under no obligation to purchase Placement Shares on a principal basis pursuant to this Agreement unless the Company and the Agent enter into a separate written agreement setting forth the terms of such sale. For the purposes hereof, “Trading Day” means any day on which the Common Stock is purchased and sold on Nasdaq.

4. Suspension of Sales.

(a) The Company or the Agent may, upon notice to the other party in writing (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 2, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply) or by telephone (confirmed immediately by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 2), suspend any sale of Placement Shares; provided,

 

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however, that such suspension shall not affect or impair either party’s obligations with respect to any Placement Shares sold hereunder prior to the receipt of such notice. Each of the parties agrees that no such notice under this Section 4 shall be effective against the other party unless notice is sent by one of the individuals named on Schedule 2 hereto to the other party in writing (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 2, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply).

(b) Notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement, during any period in which the Company is, or could be deemed to be, in possession of material non-public information, the Company and the Agent agree that (i) no sale of Placement Shares will take place, (ii) the Company shall not request the sale of any Placement Shares and shall cancel any effective Placement Notices instructing the Agent to make any sales and (iii) the Agent shall not be obligated to sell or offer to sell any Placement Shares.

5. Settlement and Delivery of the Placement Shares.

(a) Settlement of Placement Shares. Unless otherwise specified in the applicable Placement Notice, settlement for sales of Placement Shares will occur on the second Trading Day (or such earlier day as is industry practice or as is required for regular-way trading) following the date on which such sales are made (each, a “Settlement Date”). The amount of proceeds to be delivered to the Company on a Settlement Date against receipt of the Placement Shares sold (the “Net Proceeds”) will be equal to the aggregate gross sales price received by the Agent at which such Placement Shares were sold, after deduction of (i) the Agent’s commission, discount or other compensation for such sales payable by the Company pursuant to Section 2 hereof, (ii) any other amounts due and payable by the Company to the Agent hereunder pursuant to Section 7(g) hereof and (iii) any transaction fees imposed by any governmental or self-regulatory organization in respect of such sales.

(b) Delivery of Placement Shares. On or before each Settlement Date, the Company will issue the Placement Shares being sold on such date and will, or will cause its transfer agent to, electronically transfer such Placement Shares by crediting the Agent’s or its designee’s account (provided the Agent shall have given the Company written notice of such designee prior to the Settlement Date) at The Depository Trust Company through its Deposit and Withdrawal at Custodian System (“DWAC”) or by such other means of delivery as may be mutually agreed upon by the parties hereto, which in all cases shall be duly authorized, freely tradeable, transferable, registered shares of Common Stock in good deliverable form. On each Settlement Date, the Agent will deliver the related Net Proceeds in same day funds to an account designated by the Company on or prior to the Settlement Date. The Agent shall be responsible for providing DWAC instructions or other instructions for delivery by other means with regard to the transfer of the Placement Shares being sold. In addition to and in no way limiting the rights and obligations set forth in Section 9(a) hereto, the Company agrees that if the Company or its transfer agent (if applicable), defaults in its obligation to deliver duly authorized, freely tradeable, transferable, registered Placement Shares in good deliverable form by 2:30 P.M., New York City time, on a Settlement Date (other than as a result of a failure by the Agent to provide instructions for delivery), the Company will (i) take all necessary action to cause the full amount of any Net Proceeds that were delivered to the Company’s account with respect to such settlement, together with any costs incurred by the Agent and/or its clearing firm in connection with recovering such Net Proceeds, to be immediately returned to the Agent or its clearing firm no later than 5:00 P.M., New York City time, on such Settlement Date, by wire transfer of immediately available funds to an account designated by the Agent or its clearing firm, (ii) indemnify and hold the Agent and its clearing firm harmless against any loss, claim, damage, or expense (including reasonable legal fees and expenses), as incurred, arising out of or in connection with such default by the Company or its transfer agent (if applicable) and (iii) pay to the Agent any commission, discount or other compensation to which it would otherwise have been entitled absent such default. Certificates for the

 

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Placement Shares, if any, shall be in such denominations and registered in such names as the Agent may request in writing one Business Day (as defined below) before the applicable Settlement Date. Certificates for the Placement Shares, if any, will be made available by the Company for examination and packaging by the Agent in New York City not later than 12:00 P.M., New York City time, on the Business Day prior to the applicable Settlement Date; provided that the Agent shall have previously provided the Company with the requested denominations and names for such certificates.

(c) Limitations on Offering Size. Under no circumstances shall the Company cause or request the offer or sale of any Placement Shares if, after giving effect to the sale of such Placement Shares, the aggregate number or gross sales proceeds of Placement Shares sold pursuant to this Agreement would exceed the lesser of: (i) the number or dollar amount of shares of Common Stock registered pursuant to, and available for offer and sale under, the Registration Statement pursuant to which the offering of Placement Shares is being made, (ii) the number of authorized but unissued shares of Common Stock of the Company (less shares of Common Stock issuable upon exercise, conversion or exchange of any outstanding securities of the Company or otherwise reserved from the Company’s authorized capital stock), (iii) the number or dollar amount of shares of Common Stock permitted to be offered and sold by the Company under Form S-3 (including General Instruction I.B.6. thereof, if such instruction is applicable), (iv) the number or dollar amount of shares of Common Stock that the Company’s board of directors or a duly authorized committee thereof is authorized to issue and sell from time to time, and notified to the Agent in writing, or (v) the dollar amount of shares of Common Stock for which the Company has filed the Sales Agreement Prospectus. Under no circumstances shall the Company cause or request the offer or sale of any Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement at a price lower than the minimum price authorized from time to time by the Company’s board of directors or a duly authorized committee thereof, and notified to the Agent in writing. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained herein, the parties hereto acknowledge and agree that compliance with the limitations set forth in this Section 5(c) on the number or dollar amount of Placement Shares that may be issued and sold under this Agreement from time to time shall be the sole responsibility of the Company, and that the Agent shall have no obligation in connection with such compliance.

6. Representations and Warranties of the Company. The Company represents and warrants to, and agrees with, the Agent that as of the date of this Agreement, and as of (i) each Representation Date (as defined in Section 7(m)), (ii) each date on which a Placement Notice is given, (iii) the date and time of each sale of any Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement and (iv) each Settlement Date (each such time or date referred to in clauses (i) through (iv), an “Applicable Time”):

(a) The Company and the transactions contemplated by this Agreement meet the requirements for and comply with the conditions for the use of Form S-3 (including General Instructions I.A. and I.B.1 or I.B.6.) under the Securities Act. The Registration Statement will be filed with the Commission and will be declared effective by the Commission under the Securities Act prior to the issuance of any Placement Notices by the Company. At the time the Registration Statement becomes effective, the Company will meet the then-applicable requirements for use of Form S-3 (including General Instructions I.A. and I.B.1 or I.B.6.) under the Securities Act. The Registration Statement meets, and the offering and sale of Placement Shares as contemplated hereby comply with, the requirements of Rule 415(a)(1)(x) under the Securities Act. The Agent is named as the agent engaged by the Company in the section entitled “Plan of Distribution” in the Sales Agreement Prospectus. The Company has not received, and has no notice from the Commission of, any notice pursuant to Rule 401(g)(1) under the Securities Act objecting to the use of the shelf registration statement form. No order of the Commission preventing or suspending the use of the base prospectus, the Sales Agreement Prospectus or the Prospectus, or the effectiveness of the Registration Statement, has been issued by the Commission and no proceedings for any of those purposes have been instituted by the Commission or are pending or, to the Company’s

 

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knowledge, threatened by the Commission. The Company has complied with each request (if any) from the Commission for additional information. At the time of the initial filing of the Registration Statement, the Company paid the required Commission filing fees relating to the securities covered by the Registration Statement, including the Shares that may be sold pursuant to this Agreement, in accordance with Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act. Copies of the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, any such amendments or supplements to any of the foregoing and all Incorporated Documents that were filed with the Commission on or prior to the date of this Agreement have been delivered, or are available through EDGAR, to the Agent and its counsel.

(b) Each of the Registration Statement and any post-effective amendment thereto, at the time it became or becomes effective, at each deemed effective date with respect to the Agent pursuant to Rule 430B(f)(2) under the Securities Act and as of each Applicable Time, complied, complies and will comply in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act. The Prospectus and any amendment or supplement thereto, at the time each was or is filed with the Commission under Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act, complied, complies and as of each Applicable Time will comply in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act. Each Incorporated Document heretofore filed, when it was filed (or, if any amendment with respect to any such document was filed, when such amendment was filed), conformed in all material respects with the requirements of the Exchange Act and was filed on a timely basis with the Commission, and any further Incorporated Documents so filed and incorporated after the date of this Agreement will be filed on a timely basis and, when so filed, will conform in all material respects with the requirements of the Exchange Act. Each Prospectus or issuer free writing prospectus (or any amendments or supplements to any of the foregoing) delivered to the Agent for use in connection with the offering of the Placement Shares and the Sales Agreement Prospectus was or will be identical to the electronically transmitted copies thereof filed with the Commission pursuant to EDGAR, except to the extent permitted by Regulation S-T. The Registration Statement, the Prospectus and the Sales Agreement Prospectus, and the filing of the Registration Statement, the Sales Agreement Prospectus and the Prospectus with the Commission have been duly authorized by and on behalf of the Company, and the Registration Statement will be duly executed pursuant to such authorization.

(c) Neither the Registration Statement nor any post-effective amendment thereto, at the time it became or becomes effective, at each deemed effective date with respect to the Agent pursuant to Rule 430B(f)(2) under the Securities Act and as of each Applicable Time, contained, contains or will contain an untrue statement of a material fact or omitted, omits or will omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading, except that the representations and warranties set forth in this sentence do not apply to Agent’s Information (as defined below). Neither the Prospectus nor any amendment or supplement thereto, as of its issue date, at the time of any filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) and as of each Applicable Time, included, includes or will include an untrue statement of a material fact or omitted, omits or will omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading, except that the representations and warranties set forth in this sentence do not apply to Agent’s Information. No Incorporated Document when it was filed (or, if an amendment with respect to any such document was filed, when such amendment was filed), contained an untrue statement of a material fact or omitted to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading; and no Incorporated Document, when it is filed, will contain an untrue statement of a material fact or will omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary in order to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

 

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(d) (i) At the time of filing the Registration Statement and any post-effective amendment thereto and (ii) at the time of the execution of this Agreement (with such date being used as the determination date for purposes of this clause (ii)), the Company was not and is not an “ineligible issuer” (as defined in Rule 405), without taking account of any determination by the Commission pursuant to Rule 405 that it is not necessary that the Company be considered an ineligible issuer.

(e) The Company is, and since May 7, 2019 has been, an “emerging growth company,” as defined in Section 2(a) of the Securities Act (an “Emerging Growth Company”).

(f) No issuer free writing prospectus, as of its issue date and as of each Applicable Time, conflicted, conflicts or will conflict with the information contained in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, including any Incorporated Document deemed to be a part thereof, that has not been superseded or modified. Any issuer free writing prospectus that the Company is required to file pursuant to Rule 433(d) has been, or will be, filed with the Commission in accordance with the requirements of the Securities Act. Each issuer free writing prospectus that the Company has filed, or is required to file, pursuant to Rule 433(d), or that was prepared by or on behalf of or used or referred to by the Company, complies or will comply in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act.

(g) Except for any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus (as defined below), if any, the Company has not prepared, used or referred to, and will not, without the prior consent of the Agent, prepare, use or refer to any “issuer free writing prospectus” (as defined in Rule 433). The Company has not distributed and, prior to the later of each Settlement Date and completion of the Agent’s distribution of the Placement Shares under this Agreement, will not distribute any offering material in connection with the offering and sale of the Placement Shares other than the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus.

(h) The interactive data in eXtensible Business Reporting Language included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus fairly presents the information called for in all material respects and has been prepared in accordance with the Commission’s rules and guidelines applicable thereto.

(i) The Company is subject to and in compliance in all material respects with the reporting requirements of Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act. The Common Stock is registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act and is listed on Nasdaq, and the Company has taken no action designed to, or reasonably likely to have the effect of, terminating the registration of the Common Stock under the Exchange Act or delisting the Common Stock from Nasdaq, nor has the Company received any notification that the Commission or Nasdaq is contemplating terminating such registration or listing. The Company is in compliance with the current listing standards of Nasdaq. The Company has filed a Notification of Listing of Additional Shares with Nasdaq with respect to the Placement Shares.

(j) No person (as such term is defined in Rule 1-02 of Regulation S-X promulgated under the Securities Act) has the right to act as an underwriter or as a financial advisor to the Company in connection with the offer and sale of the Placement Shares hereunder, whether as a result of the filing or effectiveness of the Registration Statement or the sale of the Placement Shares as contemplated hereby or otherwise. Except for the Agent pursuant to this Agreement, there are no contracts, agreements or understandings between the Company and any person that would give rise to a valid claim against the Company or the Agent for a brokerage commission, finder’s fee or other like payment in connection with the offering of the Placement Shares contemplated hereby.

 

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(k) The Company has been duly organized and is validly existing as a corporation in good standing under the laws of the State of Delaware and has corporate power and authority to own, lease and operate its properties and to conduct its business as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and to enter into and perform its obligations under this Agreement. The Company is duly qualified as a foreign corporation to transact business and is in good standing in each other jurisdiction in which such qualification is required, whether by reason of the ownership or leasing of property or the conduct of business, except where the failure to so qualify or to be in good standing would not, individually or in the aggregate, result in a material adverse effect on the condition, financial or otherwise, or in the earnings, business affairs or business prospects of the Company and the Subsidiary, considered as one enterprise, whether or not arising in the ordinary course of business (a “Material Adverse Effect”).

(l) Trevi Therapeutics, Limited, a private limited company incorporated under the laws of England and Wales and the wholly owned subsidiary of the Company (the “Subsidiary”), has been duly organized and is validly existing in good standing under the laws of the jurisdiction of its incorporation or organization, has corporate or similar power and authority to own, lease and operate its properties and to conduct its business as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus. The Subsidiary is duly qualified to transact business and is in good standing in each jurisdiction in which such qualification is required, whether by reason of the ownership or leasing of property or the conduct of business, except where the failure to so qualify or to be in good standing would not, individually or in the aggregate, result in a Material Adverse Effect. All of the issued and outstanding capital stock of the Subsidiary has been duly authorized and validly issued, is fully paid and non-assessable and is owned by the Company directly, free and clear of any security interest, mortgage, pledge, lien, encumbrance, claim or equity. None of the outstanding shares of capital stock of the Subsidiary was issued in violation of the preemptive or similar rights of any securityholder of the Subsidiary. The Subsidiary is the only subsidiary of the Company.

(m) The authorized, issued and outstanding shares of capital stock of the Company are as set forth in the Company’s most recent quarterly report on Form 10-Q or annual report on Form 10-K, as applicable, as of the dates referred to therein (except, in each case, for subsequent issuances, if any, (i) of Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement, (ii) pursuant to reservations, agreements or employee benefit plans referred to in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus or (iii) pursuant to the exercise of options referred to in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus). All of the outstanding shares of capital stock of the Company have been duly authorized and are validly issued, fully paid and non-assessable. None of the outstanding shares of capital stock of the Company were issued in violation of the preemptive or other similar rights of any securityholder of the Company.

(n) The Placement Shares have been duly authorized for issuance and sale pursuant to this Agreement and, when issued and delivered by the Company pursuant to this Agreement against payment therefor, will be validly issued, fully paid and non-assessable and will conform in all material respects to the description thereof contained in the Prospectus. The Common Stock conforms, in all material respects, to all statements relating thereto contained in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, including under the heading “Description of Capital Stock,” and such description conforms, in all material respects, to the rights set forth in the instruments defining the same. The issuance and sale of the Placement Shares as contemplated hereby shall not be subject to any preemptive or similar rights of any securityholder of the Company. No holder of Placement Shares will be subject to personal liability by reason of being such a holder.

(o) There are no contracts or documents which are required to be described in the Registration Statement, Prospectus or in any Incorporated Document or to be filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement which have not been so described and filed as required.

(p) This Agreement has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by the Company.

 

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(q) The Company is not required, and immediately after giving effect to the offering and sale of the Placement Shares and the application of the net proceeds therefrom as described in the Prospectus, will not be required, to register as an “investment company” under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended.

(r) No filing with, or authorization, approval, consent, license, order, registration, qualification or decree of, any arbitrator, court, governmental body, regulatory body, administrative agency or other authority, body or agency having jurisdiction over the Company or the Subsidiary or any of their respective properties, assets or operations (each, a “Governmental Entity”) is necessary or required for the performance by the Company of its obligations hereunder, in connection with the offering, issuance or sale of the Placement Shares hereunder or the consummation of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, except such as have already been obtained or as may be required under the Securities Act, the rules of the Nasdaq Stock Market LLC, state securities laws or the rules of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (“FINRA”).

(s) Neither the Company nor the Subsidiary is (i) in violation of its charter, by-laws or similar organizational document, (ii) in default in the performance or observance of any obligation, agreement, covenant or condition contained in any contract, indenture, mortgage, deed of trust, loan or credit agreement, note, lease or other agreement or instrument to which the Company or the Subsidiary is a party or by which either of them may be bound or to which any of the properties or assets of the Company or the Subsidiary is subject (collectively, “Agreements and Instruments”), except for such defaults that would not, individually or in the aggregate, result in a Material Adverse Effect, or (iii) in violation of any law, statute, rule, regulation, judgment, order, writ or decree of any Governmental Entity, except for such violations that would not, individually or in the aggregate, result in a Material Adverse Effect. The execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement, the consummation of the transactions contemplated herein and in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus (including the issuance and sale of the Placement Shares and the use of the proceeds from the sale of the Placement Shares as described therein under the caption “Use of Proceeds”) and compliance by the Company with its obligations hereunder have been duly authorized by all necessary corporate action and do not and will not, whether with or without the giving of notice or passage of time or both, conflict with or constitute a breach of, or default or Repayment Event (as defined below) under, or result in the creation or imposition of any lien, charge or encumbrance upon any properties or assets of the Company or the Subsidiary pursuant to, the Agreements and Instruments (except for such conflicts, breaches, defaults or Repayment Events or liens, charges or encumbrances that would not, individually or in the aggregate, result in a Material Adverse Effect), nor will such action result in any violation of the charter, by-laws or similar organizational document of the Company or the Subsidiary or any law, statute, rule, regulation, judgment, order, writ or decree of any Governmental Entity. As used herein, a “Repayment Event” means any event or condition which gives the holder of any note, debenture or other evidence of indebtedness (or any person acting on such holder’s behalf) the right to require the repurchase, redemption or repayment of all or a portion of such indebtedness by the Company or the Subsidiary.

(t) Since the respective dates as of which information is given in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus: (i) there has been no material adverse change in the condition, financial or otherwise, or in the earnings, business affairs or business prospects of the Company and the Subsidiary, considered as one enterprise, whether or not arising in the ordinary course of business; (ii) there have been no transactions entered into by the Company or the Subsidiary, other than those in the ordinary course of business, which are material with respect to the Company and the Subsidiary considered as one enterprise; (iii) there have been no material liabilities or obligations, direct or contingent, entered into by the Company or the Subsidiary; and (iv) there has been no dividend or distribution of any kind declared, paid or made by the Company on any class of its capital stock.

 

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(u) There are no persons with registration or other similar rights to have any securities registered for sale pursuant to the Registration Statement or otherwise registered for sale or sold by the Company under the Securities Act pursuant to this Agreement, other than those rights that have been disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and have been duly waived as of the date of this Agreement, copies of such waivers having been made available to you.

(v) The financial statements included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, together with the related schedules and notes, comply as to form in all material respects with Regulation S-X under the Securities Act and present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company and the Subsidiary at the dates indicated and the statement of operations, stockholders’ equity and cash flows of the Company and the Subsidiary for the periods specified; said financial statements have been prepared in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) applied on a consistent basis throughout the periods involved. The supporting schedules, if any, present fairly, in all material respects, in accordance with GAAP, the information required to be stated therein. The selected financial data and the summary financial information, if any, and other financial data included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus present fairly, in all material respects, the information shown therein and have been compiled on a basis consistent with that of the audited financial statements included therein. Except as included therein, no historical or pro forma financial statements or supporting schedules are required to be included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus under the Securities Act. All disclosures contained in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus regarding “non-GAAP financial measures” (as such term is defined by the rules and regulations of the Commission) comply with Regulation G of the Exchange Act and Item 10 of Regulation S-K under the Securities Act, to the extent applicable.

(x) The Company and the Subsidiary have good and marketable title to all real property owned by them and good title to all other properties owned by them (excluding, for the purpose of this Section 6(x), Intellectual Property (as defined below), which is addressed below in Section 6(nn)), in each case, free and clear of all mortgages, pledges, liens, security interests, claims, restrictions or encumbrances of any kind except such as do not, singly or in the aggregate, materially affect the value of such property and do not materially interfere with the use made and proposed to be made of such property by the Company or the Subsidiary; and all of the leases and subleases material to the business of the Company and the Subsidiary, considered as one enterprise, and under which the Company or the Subsidiary holds properties described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, are in full force and effect, and neither the Company nor the Subsidiary has received any notice of any material claim of any sort that has been asserted by anyone adverse to the rights of the Company or the Subsidiary under any of the leases or subleases mentioned above, or affecting or questioning the rights of the Company or the Subsidiary to the continued possession of the leased or subleased premises under any such lease or sublease.

(y) Ernst & Young LLP, the accounting firm that certified the financial statements and supporting schedules of the Company that are incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, is an independent registered public accounting firm as required by the Securities Act, the Exchange Act and the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (“PCAOB”).

 

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(z) All United States federal income tax returns of the Company and the Subsidiary required by law to be filed have been filed and all taxes shown by such returns or otherwise assessed, which are due and payable, have been paid, except assessments against which appeals have been or will be promptly taken and as to which adequate reserves have been established by the Company. The United States federal income tax returns of the Company through the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018 have been filed and no assessment in connection therewith has been made against the Company. The Company and the Subsidiary have filed all other tax returns that are required to have been filed by them pursuant to applicable foreign, state, local or other law, and have paid all taxes due pursuant to such returns or pursuant to any assessment received by the Company or the Subsidiary, except for such taxes, if any, as are being contested in good faith and as to which adequate reserves have been established by the Company and except insofar as the failure to file such returns would not, individually or in the aggregate, result in a Material Adverse Effect. The charges, accruals and reserves on the books of the Company in respect of any income and corporation tax liability for any years not finally determined are, in conformity with GAAP, adequate to meet any assessments or re-assessments for additional income tax for any years not finally determined, except to the extent of any inadequacy that would not, individually or in the aggregate, result in a Material Adverse Effect.

(aa) No labor dispute with the employees of the Company or the Subsidiary exists or, to the knowledge of the Company, is imminent, and the Company is not aware of any existing or imminent labor disturbance by the employees of any of its or the Subsidiary’s principal suppliers, manufacturers, customers or contractors, which, in each case, would, individually or in the aggregate, result in a Material Adverse Effect.

(bb) The Company and the Subsidiary carry or are entitled to the benefits of insurance, with financially sound and reputable insurers, in such amounts and covering such risks as is generally maintained by companies of established repute engaged in the same or similar business, and all such insurance is in full force and effect. The Company has no reason to believe that it or the Subsidiary will not be able to (i) renew their existing insurance coverage as and when such policies expire or (ii) obtain comparable coverage from similar institutions as may be necessary or appropriate to conduct their business as now conducted and at a materially higher cost. Neither of the Company nor the Subsidiary has been denied any insurance coverage which it has sought or for which it has applied.

(cc) The Company and the Subsidiary possess such permits, licenses, approvals, consents and other authorizations (collectively, “Governmental Licenses”) issued by the appropriate Governmental Entities necessary to conduct the business now operated by them (including, without limitation, all such permits, licenses, approvals, consents and other authorizations required by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (the “FDA”), the European Medicines Agency (the “EMA”) or any other federal, state, local or foreign agencies or bodies engaged in the regulation of clinical or preclinical studies, pharmaceuticals, biologics, biohazardous substances or activities related to the business now operated by the Company and the Subsidiary), except where the failure so to possess would not, individually or in the aggregate, result in a Material Adverse Effect. The Company and the Subsidiary are in compliance in all material respects with the terms and conditions of all Governmental Licenses. The Company has fulfilled and performed all of its material obligations with respect to the Governmental Licenses and, to the knowledge of the Company, no event has occurred which allows, or after notice or lapse of time would allow, revocation or termination thereof or results in any other material impairment of the rights of the Company as a holder of any permit. All of the Governmental Licenses are valid and in full force and effect, except where the invalidity of such Governmental Licenses or the failure of such Governmental Licenses to be in full force and effect would not, individually or in the aggregate, result in a Material Adverse Effect. Neither the Company nor the Subsidiary has received any notice of proceedings relating to the revocation or modification of any Governmental Licenses, which, if the subject of an unfavorable decision, ruling or finding, would, individually or in the aggregate, result in a Material Adverse Effect.

 

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(dd) The Company and the Subsidiary maintain effective internal control over financial reporting (as defined under Rule 13-a15 and 15d-15 under the Exchange Act) and a system of internal accounting controls sufficient to provide reasonable assurances that (i) transactions are executed in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization; (ii) transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP and to maintain accountability for assets; (iii) access to assets is permitted only in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization; (iv) the recorded accountability for assets is compared with existing assets at reasonable intervals and appropriate action is taken with respect to any differences; and (v) the interactive data in eXtensible Business Reporting Language included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus fairly presents the information called for in all material respects and is prepared in accordance with the Commission’s rules and guidelines applicable thereto.

(ee) The Company and the Subsidiary have established and maintain disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rules 13a-15 and 15d-15 under the Exchange Act), which (i) are designed to ensure that information relating to the Company, including the Subsidiary, is made known to the Company’s principal executive officer and its principal financial officer by others within those entities, particularly during the periods in which the periodic reports required under the Exchange Act are being prepared; (ii) have been evaluated by management of the Company for effectiveness as of the end of the Company’s most recent fiscal quarter; and (iii) are effective in all material respects to perform the functions for which they were established. Since the end of the Company’s most recent audited fiscal year, there has been (x) no material weakness in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting (whether or not remediated) and (y) no change in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting that has materially adversely affected, or is reasonably likely to materially adversely affect, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.

(ff) Neither the Company nor any affiliate of the Company has taken, nor will the Company or any affiliate take, directly or indirectly, any action which is designed, or would reasonably be expected, to cause or result in, or which constitutes, the stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of the Placement Shares or to result in a violation of Regulation M under the Exchange Act.

(gg) Except as would not, individually or in the aggregate, result in a Material Adverse Effect, (i) neither the Company nor the Subsidiary is in violation of any federal, state, local or foreign statute, law, rule, regulation, ordinance, code, policy or rule of common law or any judicial or administrative interpretation thereof, including any judicial or administrative order, consent, decree or judgment, relating to pollution or protection of human health, the environment (including, without limitation, ambient air, surface water, groundwater, land surface or subsurface strata) or wildlife, including, without limitation, laws and regulations relating to the release or threatened release of chemicals, pollutants, contaminants, wastes, toxic substances, hazardous substances, petroleum or petroleum products, asbestos-containing materials or mold (collectively, “Hazardous Materials”) or to the manufacture, processing, distribution, use, treatment, storage, disposal, transport or handling of Hazardous Materials (collectively, “Environmental Laws”); (ii) the Company and the Subsidiary have all permits, authorizations and approvals required under any applicable Environmental Laws and are each in compliance with their requirements; (iii) there are no pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened administrative, regulatory or judicial actions, suits, demands, demand letters, claims, liens, notices of noncompliance or violation, investigation or proceedings relating to any Environmental Law against the Company or the Subsidiary; and (iv) there are no events or circumstances that would reasonably be expected to form the basis of an order for clean-up or remediation, or an action, suit or proceeding by any private party or Governmental Entity, against or affecting the Company or the Subsidiary relating to Hazardous Materials or any Environmental Laws.

 

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(hh) The Company and the Subsidiary and any “employee benefit plan” (as defined under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended, and the regulations and published interpretations thereunder (collectively, “ERISA”)) established or maintained by the Company, the Subsidiary or their ERISA Affiliates (as defined below) are in compliance in all material respects with ERISA. “ERISA Affiliate” means, with respect to the Company or the Subsidiary, any member of any group of organizations described in Sections 414(b), (c), (m) or (o) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, and the regulations and published interpretations thereunder (the “Code”) of which the Company or the Subsidiary is a member. No “reportable event” (as defined under ERISA) has occurred or is reasonably expected to occur with respect to any “employee benefit plan” established or maintained by the Company, the Subsidiary or any of their ERISA Affiliates. No “employee benefit plan” established or maintained by the Company, the Subsidiary or any of their ERISA Affiliates, if such “employee benefit plan” were terminated, would have any “amount of unfunded benefit liabilities” (as defined under ERISA). Neither the Company, the Subsidiary nor any of their ERISA Affiliates has incurred or reasonably expects to incur any liability under (i) Title IV of ERISA with respect to termination of, or withdrawal from, any “employee benefit plan” or (ii) Sections 412, 4971, 4975 or 4980B of the Code. Each employee benefit plan established or maintained by the Company, the Subsidiary or any of their ERISA Affiliates that is intended to be qualified under Section 401(a) of the Code is so qualified and nothing has occurred, whether by action or failure to act, which would cause the loss of such qualification.

(ii) The Company is and has been in compliance with all provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder (collectively, the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”) applicable to the Company at all times (taking into account all exemptions and phase-in periods provided under the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act and otherwise under applicable law).

(jj) None of the Company, the Subsidiary or any employee or agent of the Company or the Subsidiary has made any contribution or other payment to any official of, or candidate for, any federal, state or foreign office in violation of any law.

(kk) None of the Company, the Subsidiary, any director or officer of the Company or the Subsidiary, or, to the Company’s knowledge, any agent, employee or affiliate of the Company or the Subsidiary or any other person acting on behalf of the Company or the Subsidiary is aware of or has taken any action, directly or indirectly, that would result in a violation by such persons of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (the “FCPA”), including, without limitation, making use of the mails or any means or instrumentality of interstate commerce corruptly in furtherance of an offer, payment, promise to pay or authorization of the payment of any money, or other property, gift, promise to give, or authorization of the giving of anything of value to any “foreign official” (as such term is defined in the FCPA) or any foreign political party or official thereof or any candidate for foreign political office, in contravention of the FCPA and the Company, the Subsidiary and, to the knowledge of the Company, its affiliates have conducted their businesses in compliance with the FCPA and have instituted and maintain policies and procedures designed to ensure, and which are reasonably expected to continue to ensure, continued compliance therewith.

(ll) The operations of the Company and the Subsidiary are and have been conducted at all times in compliance with applicable financial recordkeeping and reporting requirements of the Currency and Foreign Transactions Reporting Act of 1970, as amended, the money laundering statutes of all applicable jurisdictions, the rules and regulations thereunder and any related or similar rules, regulations or guidelines, issued, administered or enforced by any Governmental Entity (collectively, the “Money Laundering Laws”); and no action, suit or proceeding by or before any Governmental Entity involving the Company or the Subsidiary with respect to the Money Laundering Laws is pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened.

 

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(mm) None of the Company, the Subsidiary, any director or officer of the Company or Subsidiary, or, to the Company’s knowledge, any agent, employee, affiliate or representative of the Company or the Subsidiary is an individual or entity (“Person”) currently the subject or target of any sanctions administered or enforced by the United States government, including, without limitation, the U.S. Department of the Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control, or the United Nations Security Council, the European Union, Her Majesty’s Treasury or other relevant sanctions authority (collectively, “Sanctions”), nor is the Company located, organized or resident in a country or territory that is a subject of Sanctions; and the Company will not directly or indirectly use the proceeds of the sale of the Placement Shares, or lend, contribute or otherwise make available such proceeds to the Subsidiary or to any joint venture partners or other Person to fund any activities of or business with any Person, or in any country or territory, that, at the time of such funding, is a subject of Sanctions or in any other manner that will result in a violation by any Person (including any Person participating in the transaction, whether as underwriter, advisor, investor or otherwise) of Sanctions.

(nn) To the knowledge of the Company, the Company and the Subsidiary own or have obtained valid, binding and enforceable licenses under, or otherwise have the right to use, the patents, patent applications, inventions, copyrights, know-how, trade secrets and other unpatented and/or unpatentable proprietary or confidential information, systems or procedures, trademarks, service marks, trade names or other intellectual property necessary for, or used in the conduct, or the proposed conduct, of the business of the Company in the manner described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus (collectively, the “Intellectual Property”); to the knowledge of the Company, the patents, trademarks and registered copyrights, if any, included within the Intellectual Property are valid, enforceable and subsisting; and none of the technology employed by the Company has been obtained or is being used by the Company in material violation of any contractual obligation binding on the Company or, to the Company’s knowledge, upon any of its officers, directors or employees or otherwise in violation of the rights of any persons. Except as otherwise disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, the Company is not obligated to pay a material royalty, grant a license to, or provide other material consideration to any third party in connection with the Intellectual Property. To the Company’s knowledge, (i) there are no third parties who have rights to any material Intellectual Property that is owned or exclusively licensed to the Company, (1) except for customary reversionary rights of third-party licensors with respect to Intellectual Property that is disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as licensed to the Company or the Subsidiary, (2) except for rights of third parties under any Intellectual Property licensed to the Company or the Subsidiary that is disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, (3) except for any licenses or sublicenses granted by the Company in the ordinary course in connection with the conduct of the business of the Company, and (4) except for the ownership rights of any co-owner of any patent constituting Intellectual Property who is listed on the records of the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (the “USPTO”) and any co-owner of any patent application constituting Intellectual Property who is named in such patent application, and, to the knowledge of the Company, no third party has any ownership right in or to any Intellectual Property in any field of use that is exclusively licensed to the Company or the Subsidiary, other than any licensor to the Company of such Intellectual Property; and (ii) there is no infringement by third parties of any Intellectual Property. There is no pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened action, suit, proceeding or claim by others (x) challenging the Company’s rights in or to any Intellectual Property, and the Company is unaware of any facts which would form a reasonable basis for any such action, suit, proceeding or claim; (y) challenging the validity or scope of any Intellectual Property that is (I) owned by the Company or the Subsidiary or (II) exclusively licensed to the Company or the Subsidiary, and the Company is unaware of any facts which would form a reasonable basis for any such action, suit,

 

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proceeding or claim; or (z) asserting that the Company or the Subsidiary infringes or otherwise violates, or would, upon the commercialization of any product or service described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as under development, infringe or violate, any patent, trademark, trade name, service name, copyright, trade secret or other proprietary rights of others, and the Company is unaware of any facts which would form a reasonable basis for any such action, suit, proceeding or claim. The Company is in compliance with the terms of each agreement pursuant to which Intellectual Property has been licensed to the Company, and all such agreements are in full force and effect, except where the failure so to comply or for such agreements to be in full force and effect would not, individually or in the aggregate, result in a Material Adverse Effect.

(oo) Except as would not, individually or in the aggregate, result in a Material Adverse Effect, the Company: (i) is and at all times has been in compliance with all statutes, rules and regulations of the FDA and other comparable Governmental Entities applicable to the ownership, testing, development, manufacture, packaging, processing, use, distribution, marketing, labeling, promotion, sale, offer for sale, storage, import, export or disposal of any product under development, manufactured or distributed by the Company (“Applicable Laws”); (ii) has not received any FDA Form 483, notice of adverse finding, warning letter, untitled letter or other correspondence or written notice from the FDA or any Governmental Entity alleging or asserting noncompliance with any Applicable Laws or any licenses, certificates, approvals, clearances, exemptions, authorizations, permits and supplements or amendments thereto required by any such Applicable Laws (“Authorizations”); (iii) possesses all Authorizations and such Authorizations are valid and in full force and effect and the Company is not in violation of any term of any such Authorizations; (iv) has not received notice of any claim, action, suit, proceeding, hearing, enforcement, investigation, arbitration or other action from the FDA or any Governmental Entity or third party alleging that any product, operation or activity is in violation of any Applicable Laws or Authorizations and, to the Company’s knowledge, neither the FDA nor any Governmental Entity or third party is considering any such claim, litigation, arbitration, action, suit, investigation or proceeding; (v) has not received notice that the FDA or any Governmental Entity has taken, is taking or intends to take action to limit, suspend, modify or revoke any Authorizations and, to the Company’s knowledge, neither the FDA nor any Governmental Entity is considering such action; and (vi) has filed, obtained, maintained or submitted all reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions and supplements or amendments as required by any Applicable Laws or Authorizations and that all such reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions and supplements or amendments were complete and correct on the date filed (or were corrected or supplemented by a subsequent submission).

(pp) The Company and the Subsidiary have operated and currently are in compliance with all applicable health care laws, rules and regulations (except where such failure to operate or non-compliance would not, individually or in the aggregate, result in a Material Adverse Effect), including, without limitation, (i) the Federal, Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. §§ 301 et seq.); (ii) all applicable federal, state, local and all applicable foreign healthcare related fraud and abuse laws, including, without limitation, the federal Anti-kickback Statute (42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7b(b)), the U.S. Physician Payments Sunshine Act (42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7h), the civil False Claims Act (31 U.S.C. §§ 3729 et seq.), the criminal False Claims Law (18 U.S.C. § 287), all criminal laws relating to healthcare fraud and abuse, including but not limited to 42 U.S.C. Section 1320a-7b(a), the exclusion laws (42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7), and the civil monetary penalties law (42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7a); (iii) U.S. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (“HIPAA”) (42 U.S.C. Section 1320d et seq.), as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic Clinical Health Act (42 U.S.C. Section 17921 et seq.); (iv) the regulations promulgated pursuant to such laws; and (v) any other similar local, state, federal or foreign laws (collectively, the “Health Care Laws”). None of the Company, the Subsidiary or, to the knowledge of the Company, any of its officers, directors, employees or agents has engaged in activities which are, as

 

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applicable, cause for false claims liability, civil penalties, or mandatory or permissive exclusion from Medicare, Medicaid, or any other state or federal healthcare program. Neither the Company nor the Subsidiary has received written notice or other correspondence of any claim, action, suit, audit, survey, proceeding, hearing, enforcement, investigation, arbitration or other action from any court, arbitrator, governmental or regulatory authority or third party alleging that any product, operation or activity is in violation of any Health Care Laws, and, to the knowledge of the Company, no such claim, action, suit, proceeding, hearing, enforcement, investigation, arbitration or other action is threatened. Neither the Company nor the Subsidiary is a party to or has any ongoing reporting obligations pursuant to any corporate integrity agreement, deferred prosecution agreement, monitoring agreement, consent decree, settlement order, plan of correction or similar agreement imposed by any governmental or regulatory authority. Additionally, none of the Company, the Subsidiary or, to the knowledge of the Company, any of its officers, directors, employees or agents, has been excluded, suspended or debarred from participation in any U.S. state or federal health care program or human clinical research or, to the knowledge of the Company, is subject to a governmental inquiry, investigation, proceeding, or other similar action that could reasonably be expected to result in debarment, suspension or exclusion.

(qq) There is no action, suit, proceeding, inquiry or investigation before or brought by any Governmental Entity (including, without limitation, any action, suit proceeding, inquiry or investigation before or brought by the FDA or the EMA) now pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened against or affecting the Company or the Subsidiary, which would reasonably be expected to materially and adversely affect their respective properties or assets or the consummation of the transactions contemplated in this Agreement or the performance by the Company of its obligations hereunder; and the aggregate of all pending legal or governmental proceedings to which the Company or the Subsidiary is a party or of which any of their respective properties or assets is the subject which are not described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, including ordinary routine litigation incidental to the business, would not, individually or in the aggregate, result in a Material Adverse Effect.

(rr) The studies, tests and preclinical and clinical trials conducted by or, to the knowledge of the Company, on behalf of the Company (the “Company Trials”) that are described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus were and, if still ongoing, are being conducted in all material respects in accordance with the protocols submitted to the FDA, the EMA or any foreign governmental body exercising comparable authority, and procedures and controls pursuant to, where applicable, accepted professional and scientific standards, and all Authorizations and Applicable Laws, including, without limitation, the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder; the descriptions of the Company Trials and the results thereof, contained in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus are, to the knowledge of the Company, accurate and complete in all material respects and fairly present the data derived from such Company Trials; the Company is not aware of any studies, tests or trials, the results of which the Company believes reasonably call into question the results of the Company Trials described or referred to in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus when viewed in the context in which such results are described and the clinical state of development; and the Company has not received any correspondence or written notices from the FDA or any Governmental Entity requiring the termination or suspension of any Company Trials, other than ordinary course communications with respect to modifications in connection with the design and implementation of such trials.

(ss) The Company acknowledges and agrees that the Agent has informed the Company that the Agent may, to the extent permitted under the Securities Act and the Exchange Act, purchase and sell shares of Common Stock for its own account while this Agreement is in effect; provided, that (i) no such purchase or sales shall take place while a Placement Notice is in effect (except to the extent the Agent may engage in sales of Placement Shares purchased or deemed purchased from the Company as a “riskless principal” or in a similar capacity) and (ii) the Company shall not be deemed to have authorized or consented to any such purchases or sales by the Agent, except as may be otherwise agreed by the Company and the Agent.

 

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(tt) The Company is not a party to any agreement with an agent or underwriter for any other “at the market” or continuous equity transaction. The Company (i) does not have any material lending or other relationship with any banking or lending affiliate of the Agent and (ii) does not intend to use any of the proceeds from the sale of the Placement Shares to repay any outstanding debt owed to any affiliate of the Agent.

(uu) All of the information provided to the Agent or its counsel by the Company, its counsel, its officers and directors and the holders of any securities (debt or equity) or options to acquire any securities of the Company in connection with the offering of the Placement Shares is true, complete, correct and compliant in all material respects with FINRA’s rules, and any letters, filings or other supplemental information provided or to be provided to FINRA pursuant to FINRA Rules or NASD Conduct Rules in connection with the transactions contemplated by this Agreement is true, complete and correct in all material respects.

(vv) As of the close of trading on Nasdaq on June 25, 2020, the aggregate market value of the outstanding voting and non-voting common equity (as defined in Rule 405) of the Company held by persons other than affiliates of the Company (pursuant to Rule 144 of the Securities Act, those that directly, or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, control, or are controlled by, or are under common control with, the Company) (the “Non-Affiliate Shares”), was approximately $36,516,841 (calculated by multiplying (x) the price at which the common equity of the Company was last sold on Nasdaq on June 25, 2020 by (y) the number of Non-Affiliate Shares outstanding on June 25, 2020). The Company is not a shell company (as defined in Rule 405) and has not been a shell company for at least 12 calendar months previously.

(ww) Neither the Company nor, to the Company’s knowledge, any of its affiliates (within the meaning of Rule 144 under the Securities Act) has, prior to the date hereof, made any offer or sale of any securities which would reasonably be expected to be “integrated” (within the meaning of the Securities Act) with the offer and sale of the Placement Shares hereunder.

(xx) Any statistical and market-related data included in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus are based on or derived from sources that the Company believes, after reasonable inquiry, to be reliable and accurate and, to the extent required, the Company has obtained the written consent to the use of such data from such sources.

(yy) There are no business relationships or related-party transactions involving the Company or the Subsidiary or any other person required to be described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus that have not been described as required.

(zz) All patents and patent applications owned by or licensed to the Company or under which the Company has rights have, to the knowledge of the Company, been duly and properly filed and maintained; to the knowledge of the Company, the parties prosecuting such patent applications have complied with their duty of candor and disclosure to the USPTO in connection with such applications; and the Company is not aware of any facts required to be disclosed to the USPTO that were not disclosed to the USPTO and which would preclude the grant of a patent in connection with any such application or would reasonably be expected to form the basis of a finding of invalidity with respect to any patents that

 

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have issued with respect to such applications. To the knowledge of the Company, all patents and patent applications owned by the Company and filed with the USPTO or any foreign or international patent authority (the “Company Patent Rights”) and all patents and patent applications in-licensed by the Company and filed with the USPTO or any foreign or international patent authority (the “In-licensed Patent Rights”) have been duly and properly filed; the Company has complied with its duty of candor and disclosure to the USPTO for the Company Patent Rights and, to the knowledge of the Company, the licensors of the In-licensed Patent Rights have complied with their duty of candor and disclosure to the USPTO for the In-licensed Patent Rights.

(aaa) The Company has no debt securities or preferred stock that is rated by any “nationally recognized statistical rating organization” (as that term is defined by the Commission for purposes of Rule 436(g)(2) under the Securities Act).

(bbb) The Company and the Subsidiary have operated their business in a manner compliant in all material respects with all United States federal, state and local and non-United States privacy, data security and data protection laws and regulations applicable to the Company’s collection, use, transfer, protection, disposal, disclosure, handling, storage and analysis of personal data. The Company and the Subsidiary have been and are in compliance in all material respects with internal policies and procedures designed to protect the integrity and security of the data collected, handled or stored in connection with their business; the Company and the Subsidiary have been and are in compliance in all material respects with internal policies and procedures designed to promote compliance with the Health Care Laws that govern privacy and data security and take and have taken reasonably appropriate steps designed to attain compliance with such policies and procedures. The Company and the Subsidiary have taken reasonable steps to maintain the confidentiality of the personally identifiable information, protected health information, consumer information and other confidential information of the Company, the Subsidiary and any third parties in their possession (“Sensitive Company Data”). The tangible or digital information technology systems (including computers, screens, servers, workstations, routers, hubs, switches, networks, data communications lines, technical data and hardware), software and telecommunications systems used or held for use by the Company and the Subsidiary (the “Company IT Assets”) are adequate and operational for, in accordance with their documentation and functional specifications, the business of the Company and the Subsidiary as now operated and as currently proposed to be conducted as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus. The Company and the Subsidiary have established commercially reasonable disaster recovery and security plans, procedures and facilities for the business consistent with industry standards and practices in all material respects, including, without limitation, for the Company IT Assets and data held or used by or for the Company and the Subsidiary. To the Company’s knowledge, after due inquiry, (i) the Company and the Subsidiary have not suffered or incurred any security breaches, compromises or incidents with respect to any Company IT Asset or Sensitive Company Data; and (ii) there has been no unauthorized or illegal use of or access to any Company IT Asset or Sensitive Company Data by any unauthorized third party. The Company and the Subsidiary have not been required to notify any individual of any information security breach, compromise or incident involving Sensitive Company Data.

Any certificate signed by any officer of the Company or the Subsidiary and delivered to the Agent or its counsel shall be deemed a representation and warranty by the Company or the Subsidiary, as the case may be, to the Agent as to matters covered thereby.

7. Covenants of the Company. The Company covenants and agrees with the Agent that:

 

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(a) Registration Statement Amendments. After the date of this Agreement and during any period in which the Prospectus relating to any Placement Shares is required to be delivered by the Agent under the Securities Act (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act or a similar rule); (i) the Company will notify the Agent promptly of the time when any subsequent amendment to the Registration Statement, other than Incorporated Documents, has been filed with the Commission and/or has become effective or any subsequent supplement to the Prospectus, other than Incorporated Documents, has been filed and of any request by the Commission for any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus related to the Placement Shares or for additional information related to the Placement Shares; (ii) the Company will prepare and file with the Commission, promptly upon the Agent’s request, any amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus that, in the Agent’s reasonable opinion, may be necessary or advisable in connection with the distribution of the Placement Shares by the Agent (provided, however, that the failure of the Agent to make such request shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect the Agent’s right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement and provided, further, that the only remedy the Agent shall have with respect to the failure by the Company to make such filing (but without limiting the Agent’s rights under Section 9 hereof) will be to cease making sales under this Agreement until such amendment or supplement is filed); (iii) the Company will not file any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus, other than Incorporated Documents, relating to the Placement Shares or a security convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for the Placement Shares unless a copy thereof has been submitted to the Agent within a reasonable period of time before the filing and the Agent has not reasonably objected in writing thereto within two Business Days (provided, however, that (A) the failure of the Agent to make such objection shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect the Agent’s right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement and (B) the Company shall have no obligation to provide the Agent any advance copy of such filing or to provide the Agent an opportunity to object to such filing if the filing does not name the Agent or does not relate to the Placement Shares or the transactions contemplated by this Agreement; and provided, further, that the only remedy the Agent shall have with respect to the Company’s making such filing notwithstanding the Agent’s objection (but without limiting the Agent’s rights under Section 9 hereof) will be to cease making sales under this Agreement) and the Company will furnish to the Agent at the time of filing thereof a copy of any Incorporated Document, except for those documents available via EDGAR; and (iv) the Company will cause each amendment or supplement to the Prospectus, other than Incorporated Documents, to be filed with the Commission as required pursuant to the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) of the Securities Act and, in the case of any Incorporated Document, to be filed with the Commission as required pursuant to the Exchange Act, within the time period prescribed (the determination to file or not file any amendment or supplement with the Commission under this Section 7(a), based on the Company’s reasonable opinion or reasonable objections, shall be made exclusively by the Company).

(b) Notice of Commission Stop Orders. The Company will advise the Agent, promptly after it receives notice or obtains knowledge thereof, of the issuance or threatened issuance by the Commission of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement, of the suspension of the qualification of the Placement Shares for offering or sale in any jurisdiction or of the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for any such purpose; and it will promptly use its commercially reasonable efforts to prevent the issuance of any stop order or to obtain its withdrawal if such a stop order should be issued. The Company will advise the Agent promptly after it receives any request by the Commission for any amendments to the Registration Statement related to the Placement Shares or any amendment or supplements to the Prospectus or for additional information related to the offering of the Placement Shares or for additional information related to the Registration Statement with respect to the Placement Shares or the Prospectus.

 

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(c) Delivery of Prospectus; Subsequent Changes. During any period in which the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares is required to be delivered by the Agent under the Securities Act with respect to the offer and sale of the Placement Shares (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act or a similar rule), the Company will comply in all material respects with all requirements imposed upon it by the Securities Act, as from time to time in force, and will file on or before their respective due dates (taking into account any extensions available under the Exchange Act) all reports and any definitive proxy or information statements required to be filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14, 15(d) or any other provision of or under the Exchange Act. If during such period any event occurs as a result of which the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented would include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances then existing, not misleading, or if during such period it is necessary to amend or supplement the Registration Statement or Prospectus to comply with the Securities Act, the Company will promptly notify the Agent to suspend the offering of Placement Shares during such period and the Company will promptly amend or supplement the Registration Statement or Prospectus (at the expense of the Company) so as to correct such statement or omission or effect such compliance; provided, however, that the Company may delay the filing of any amendment or supplement if, in the judgment of the Company, it would adversely affect the Company not to do so. If the Company has omitted any information with respect to the Placement Shares from the Registration Statement pursuant to Rule 430B under the Securities Act, it will use its reasonable best efforts to comply with the provisions thereof and make all requisite filings with the Commission pursuant to said Rule 430B and to notify the Agent promptly of all such filings if not available on EDGAR.

(d) Listing of Placement Shares. During any period in which the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares is required to be delivered by the Agent under the Securities Act with respect to the offer and sale of the Placement Shares (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act or a similar rule), the Company will use its commercially reasonable efforts to cause the Placement Shares to be listed on Nasdaq. The Company will timely file with Nasdaq all material documents and notices required by Nasdaq of companies that have or will issue securities that are traded on Nasdaq.

(e) Delivery of Registration Statement and Prospectus. The Company will furnish to the Agent and its counsel (at the expense of the Company) copies of the Registration Statement, the Prospectus (including all Incorporated Documents) and all amendments and supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus that are filed with the Commission during any period in which the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares is required to be delivered under the Securities Act (including all Incorporated Documents filed with the Commission during such period), in each case as soon as reasonably practicable and in such quantities as the Agent may from time to time reasonably request and, at the Agent’s reasonable request, will also furnish copies of the Prospectus to each exchange or market on which sales of the Placement Shares may be made; provided, however, that the Company shall not be required to furnish any document (other than the Prospectus) to the Agent to the extent such document is available on EDGAR.

(f) Earnings Statement. The Company will make generally available to its security holders and to the Agent as soon as practicable, but in any event not later than 15 months after the end of the Company’s current fiscal quarter, an earnings statement covering a 12-month period that satisfies the provisions of Section 11(a) of and Rule 158 under the Securities Act.

 

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(g) Expenses. The Company, whether or not the transactions contemplated hereunder are consummated or this Agreement is terminated in accordance with the provisions of Section 11 hereunder, will pay all expenses incident to the performance of its obligations hereunder, including expenses relating to (i) the preparation, printing and filing of the Registration Statement and each amendment and supplement thereto, of the Prospectus and of each amendment and supplement thereto and of this Agreement and such other documents as may be required in connection with the offering, purchase, sale, issuance or delivery of the Placement Shares, (ii) the preparation, issuance, sale and delivery of the Placement Shares and any taxes due or payable in connection therewith, (iii) the qualification of the Placement Shares under securities laws in accordance with the provisions of Section 7(w) of this Agreement, including filing fees (provided, however, that any fees or disbursements of counsel for the Agent in connection therewith shall be paid by the Agent except as set forth in clauses (vii) and (viii) below), (iv) the printing and delivery to the Agent and its counsel of copies of the Prospectus and any amendments or supplements thereto, and of this Agreement, (v) the fees and expenses incurred in connection with the listing or qualification of the Placement Shares for trading on Nasdaq, (vi) the filing fees and expenses, if any, owed to the Commission or FINRA and the fees and expenses of any transfer agent or registrar for the Shares, (vii) the fees and associated expenses of the Agent’s outside legal counsel for filings with the FINRA Corporate Financing Department in an amount not to exceed $15,000 (excluding FINRA filing fees referred to in clause (vi) above and in addition to the fees and disbursements referred to in clause (viii) below), and (viii) the reasonable fees and disbursements of the Agent’s outside legal counsel (A) in an amount not to exceed $50,000 in connection with the establishment of the offering program contemplated by this Agreement (in addition to the fees and associated expenses referred to in clause (vii) above) and (B) in an amount not to exceed an additional $15,000 per fiscal quarter thereafter.

(h) Use of Proceeds. The Company will use the Net Proceeds as described in the Prospectus in the section entitled “Use of Proceeds.”

(i) Notice of Other Sales. Without the prior written consent of the Agent, the Company will not, directly or indirectly, offer to sell, sell, contract to sell, grant any option to sell or otherwise dispose of any shares of Common Stock (other than the Placement Shares offered pursuant to this Agreement) or securities convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for shares of Common Stock, warrants or any rights to purchase or acquire shares of Common Stock during the period beginning on the fifth Trading Day immediately prior to the date on which any Placement Notice is delivered to Agent hereunder and ending on the second Trading Day immediately following the final Settlement Date with respect to Placement Shares sold pursuant to such Placement Notice (or, if the Placement Notice has been terminated or suspended prior to the sale of all Placement Shares covered by a Placement Notice, the date of such suspension or termination); and will not directly or indirectly in any other “at the market offering” or continuous equity transaction offer to sell, sell, contract to sell, grant any option to sell or otherwise dispose of any shares of Common Stock (other than the Placement Shares offered pursuant to this Agreement) or securities convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for shares of Common Stock, warrants or any rights to purchase or acquire, shares of Common Stock prior to the later of the termination of this Agreement and the forty-fifth day immediately following the final Settlement Date with respect to Placement Shares sold pursuant to such Placement Notice; provided, however, that such restrictions will not be required in connection with the Company’s issuance or sale of (i) shares of Common Stock, options to purchase shares of Common Stock, other securities under the Company’s existing equity incentive plans, or shares of Common Stock issuable upon the exercise of options or vesting of other securities, pursuant to any employee or director stock option or benefits plan, stock ownership plan or dividend reinvestment plan (but not shares of Common Stock subject to a waiver to exceed plan limits in its dividend reinvestment plan) of the Company whether now in effect or hereafter implemented, (ii) shares of Common Stock issuable upon conversion of securities or the exercise of warrants, options or other rights in effect or outstanding, and disclosed in filings by the Company available on EDGAR or otherwise in writing to the Agent and (iii) shares of Common Stock or securities

 

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convertible into or exchangeable for shares of Common Stock as consideration for mergers, acquisitions, other business combinations or strategic alliances or offered and sold in a privately negotiated transaction to vendors, customers, strategic partners or potential strategic partners conducted in a manner so as not to be integrated with the offering of Common Stock contemplated by this Agreement and occurring after the date of this Agreement which are not issued for capital raising purposes.

(j) Change of Circumstances. The Company will, at any time during a fiscal quarter in which the Company intends to tender a Placement Notice or sell Placement Shares, advise the Agent promptly after it shall have received notice or obtained knowledge of any information or fact that would alter or affect in any material respect any opinion, certificate, letter or other document provided or required to be provided to the Agent pursuant to this Agreement.

(k) Due Diligence Cooperation. During the term of this Agreement, the Company will cooperate with any reasonable due diligence review conducted by the Agent, its affiliates, agents and counsel from time to time in connection with the transactions contemplated hereby, including providing information and making available documents and senior corporate officers, during regular business hours and at the Company’s principal offices, as the Agent may reasonably request.

(l) Required Filings Relating to Placement of Placement Shares. The Company agrees that on or prior to such dates as the Securities Act shall require, the Company will (i) file a prospectus supplement with the Commission under the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act, which prospectus supplement will set forth, within the relevant period, the number or amount of Placement Shares sold through the Agent, the Net Proceeds to the Company and the compensation payable by the Company to the Agent with respect to such Placement Shares, and (ii) deliver such number of copies of each such prospectus supplement to each exchange or market on which such sales were effected as may be required by the rules or regulations of such exchange or market; provided, that, unless a prospectus supplement containing such information is required to be filed under the Securities Act, the requirement of this Section 7(l) may be satisfied by Company’s inclusion in the Company’s Form 10-K or Form 10-Q, as applicable, of the number or amount of Placement Shares sold through the Agent, the Net Proceeds to the Company and the compensation payable by the Company to the Agent with respect to such Placement Shares during the relevant period.

(m) Representation Dates; Certificate. On or prior to the date on which the Company first delivers a Placement Notice pursuant to this agreement (the “First Placement Notice Date”) and each time the Company:

(i) amends or supplements (other than a prospectus supplement relating solely to an offering of securities other than the Placement Shares) the Registration Statement or the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares (other than a prospectus supplement filed in accordance with Section 7(l) of this Agreement) by means of a post-effective amendment, sticker or supplement but not by means of incorporation of document(s) by reference into the Registration Statement or the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares;

(ii) files an annual report on Form 10-K under the Exchange Act (including any Form 10-K/A containing amended financial information or a material amendment to the previously filed Form 10-K);

(iii) files a quarterly report on Form 10-Q under the Exchange Act; or

 

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(iv) files a current report on Form 8-K containing amended financial information (other than an earnings release that is “furnished” pursuant to Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K) under the Exchange Act (each date of filing of one or more of the documents referred to in clauses (i) through (iv) shall be a “Representation Date”),

the Company shall furnish the Agent (but in the case of clause (iv) above only if (1) a Placement Notice is pending or in effect and (2) the Agent requests such certificate within three Business Days after the filing of such Form 8-K with the Commission) with a certificate, in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m) (modified, as necessary, to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented), within three Trading Days after any Representation Date. The requirement to provide a certificate under this Section 7(m) shall be waived for any Representation Date occurring at a time at which no Placement Notice is pending or in effect, which waiver shall continue until the earlier to occur of (1) the date the Company delivers a Placement Notice hereunder (which for such calendar quarter shall be considered a Representation Date) and (2) the next occurring Representation Date. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if the Company subsequently decides to sell Placement Shares following a Representation Date on which the Company relied on the waiver referred to in the previous sentence and did not provide the Agent with a certificate under this Section 7(m), then before the Company delivers a Placement Notice or the Agent sells any Placement Shares pursuant thereto, the Company shall provide the Agent with a certificate, in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m), dated the date of such Placement Notice. Within three Trading Days after each Representation Date, the Company shall have furnished to the Agent such further information, certificates and documents as the Agent may reasonably request.

(n) Legal Opinions. On or prior to the First Placement Notice Date and on any date on which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 7(m) for which no waiver is applicable, the Company shall cause to be furnished to the Agent the written opinion and negative assurance letter of Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP, counsel to the Company, or such other counsel satisfactory to the Agent (“Company Counsel”), in form and substance satisfactory to the Agent and its counsel, dated the date that the opinion and negative assurance letter are required to be delivered, modified, as necessary, to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented; provided, however, that in lieu of such opinion and negative assurance letter for subsequent Representation Dates, Company Counsel may furnish the Agent with a letter to the effect that the Agent may rely on a prior opinion or negative assurance letter delivered by such counsel under this Section 7(n) to the same extent as if it were dated the date of such letter (except that statements in such prior opinion or negative assurance letter shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended or supplemented at such Representation Date). Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Company shall not be required to furnish more than one opinion of such counsel per each annual report on Form 10-K and each quarterly report on Form 10-Q filed by the Company unless any such annual report on Form 10-K or quarterly report on Form 10-Q is amended to correct a material omission or misstatement or to include material new financial information (including amending or restating previously filed financial information).

(o) Intellectual Property Opinion. On or prior to the First Placement Notice Date, the Company shall cause to be furnished to the Agent the written opinion of each of Cooley LLP and Davidson, Davidson & Kappel, LLC, counsels for the Company with respect to intellectual property matters, or such other intellectual property counsel satisfactory to the Agent (“Intellectual Property Counsel”), each in form and substance satisfactory to the Agent and its counsel, each dated the date that the respective opinion letter is required to be delivered, modified, as necessary, to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented.

 

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(p) Comfort Letter. On or prior to the First Placement Notice Date and on any date on which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 7(m) for which no waiver is applicable, the Company shall cause its independent registered public accounting firm (and any other independent accountants whose report is included in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus) to furnish the Agent letters (the “Comfort Letters”), dated the date the Comfort Letter is delivered, which shall meet the requirements set forth in this Section 7(p); provided, that if requested by the Agent, the Company shall cause a Comfort Letter to be furnished to the Agent within 10 Trading Days of the occurrence of any material transaction or event that necessitates the filing of additional, pro forma, amended or revised financial statements (including any restatement of previously issued financial statements). Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Company shall not be required to furnish more than one Comfort Letter per each annual report on Form 10-K and each quarterly report on Form 10-Q filed by the Company unless any such annual report on Form 10-K or quarterly report on Form 10-Q is amended to correct a material omission or misstatement or to include material new financial information (including amending or restating previously filed financial information). Each Comfort Letter shall be in form and substance satisfactory to the Agent and each Comfort Letter from the Company’s independent registered public accounting firm shall (i) confirm that they are an independent registered public accounting firm within the meaning of the Securities Act and the PCAOB, (ii) state, as of such date, the conclusions and findings of such firm with respect to the financial information and other matters ordinarily covered by accountants’ “comfort letters” to underwriters in connection with registered public offerings (the first such letter, the “Initial Comfort Letter”) and (iii) update the Initial Comfort Letter with any information that would have been included in the Initial Comfort Letter had it been given on such date and modified as necessary to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as amended and supplemented to the date of such letter.

(q) Market Activities. The Company will not, directly or indirectly, and will cause its officers, directors and the Subsidiary not to (i) take any action designed to cause or result in, or that constitutes or might reasonably be expected to constitute, the stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of shares of Common Stock or (ii) sell, bid for, or purchase shares of Common Stock in violation of Regulation M, or pay anyone any compensation for soliciting purchases of the Placement Shares other than the Agent; provided, however, that the Company may bid for and purchase shares of Common Stock in accordance with Rule 10b-18 under the Exchange Act.

(r) Insurance. The Company and the Subsidiary shall maintain, or cause to be maintained, insurance in such amounts and covering such risks as is reasonable and customary for the business for which it is engaged.

(s) Compliance with Laws. The Company and the Subsidiary shall maintain, or cause to be maintained, all material environmental certificates, authorizations or permits required by federal, state and local law in order to conduct their businesses as described in the Prospectus (collectively, “Permits”), and the Company and the Subsidiary shall conduct their businesses, or cause their businesses to be conducted, in substantial compliance with such Permits and with applicable Environmental Laws, except where the failure to maintain or be in compliance with such Permits could not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

(t) Investment Company Act. The Company will conduct its affairs in such a manner so as to reasonably ensure that neither it nor the Subsidiary will be or become, at any time prior to the termination of this Agreement, an “investment company,” as such term is defined in the Investment Company Act.

 

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(u) Securities Act and Exchange Act. The Company will use its reasonable best efforts to comply with all requirements imposed upon it by the Securities Act and the Exchange Act as from time to time in force, so far as necessary to permit the sales of, or dealings in, the Placement Shares as contemplated by the provisions hereof and the Prospectus.

(v) No Offer to Sell. Other than a free writing prospectus (as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act) approved in advance by the Company and the Agent, neither the Agent nor the Company (including its agents and representatives, other than the Agent in its capacity as agent) will make, use, prepare, authorize, approve or refer to any written communication (as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act), required to be filed with the Commission, that constitutes an offer to sell or solicitation of an offer to buy Placement Shares hereunder.

(w) Blue Sky and Other Qualifications. The Company will use its commercially reasonable efforts, in cooperation with the Agent, to qualify the Placement Shares for offering and sale, or to obtain an exemption for the Placement Shares to be offered and sold, under the applicable securities laws of such states and other jurisdictions (domestic or foreign) as the Agent may designate and to maintain such qualifications and exemptions in effect for so long as required for the distribution of the Placement Shares (but in no event for less than one year from the date of this Agreement); provided, however, that the Company shall not be obligated to file any general consent to service of process or to qualify as a foreign corporation or as a dealer in securities in any jurisdiction in which it is not so qualified or to subject itself to taxation in respect of doing business in any jurisdiction in which it is not otherwise so subject. In each jurisdiction in which the Placement Shares have been so qualified or exempt, the Company will file such statements and reports as may be required by the laws of such jurisdiction to continue such qualification or exemption, as the case may be, in effect for so long as required for the distribution of the Placement Shares (but in no event for less than one year from the date of this Agreement).

(x) Sarbanes-Oxley Act. The Company will maintain and keep accurate books and records reflecting its assets and maintain internal accounting controls in a manner designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with GAAP and including those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that in reasonable detail accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the Company, (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit the preparation of the Company’s financial statements in accordance with GAAP, (iii) that receipts and expenditures of the Company are being made only in accordance with management’s and the Company’s directors’ authorization, and (iv) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use or disposition of the Company’s assets that could have a material effect on its financial statements. The Company will maintain such controls and other procedures, including, without limitation, those required by Sections 302 and 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, and the applicable regulations thereunder that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported, within the time periods specified in the Commission’s rules and forms, including, without limitation, controls and procedures designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to the Company’s management, including its principal executive officer and principal financial officer, or persons performing similar functions, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure and to ensure that material information relating to the Company is made known to it by others within the Company, particularly during the period in which such periodic reports are being prepared.

 

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(y) Emerging Growth Company. The Company will promptly notify the Agent if the Company ceases to be an Emerging Growth Company at any time prior to the completion of the Agent’s distribution of the Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement.

(z) Renewal of Registration Statement. If, immediately prior to the third anniversary of the initial effective date of the Registration Statement (the “Renewal Date”), any of the Placement Shares remain unsold and this Agreement has not been terminated, the Company will, prior to the Renewal Date, file a new shelf registration statement or, if applicable, an automatic shelf registration statement relating to the Common Stock that may be offered and sold pursuant to this Agreement (which shall include a prospectus reflecting the number or amount of Placement Shares that may be offered and sold pursuant to this Agreement), in a form satisfactory to the Agent and its counsel, and, if such registration statement is not an automatic shelf registration statement, will use its best efforts to cause such registration statement to be declared effective within 180 days after the Renewal Date. The Company will take all other reasonable actions necessary or appropriate to permit the public offer and sale of the Placement Shares to continue as contemplated in the expired registration statement and this Agreement. From and after the effective date thereof, references herein to the “Registration Statement” shall include such new shelf registration statement or such new automatic shelf registration statement, as the case may be.

(aa) Tax Indemnity. The Company will indemnify and hold harmless the Agent against any documentary, stamp or similar issue tax, including any interest and penalties, on the issue and sale of the Placement Shares.

(bb) Transfer Agent. The Company has engaged and will maintain, at its sole expense, a transfer agent and registrar for the Common Stock.

8. Conditions to the Agent’s Obligations. The obligations of the Agent hereunder with respect to a Placement will be subject to the continuing accuracy and completeness of the representations and warranties made by the Company herein, to the due performance by the Company of its obligations hereunder, to the completion by the Agent of a due diligence review satisfactory to the Agent in its reasonable judgment, and to the continuing satisfaction (or waiver by the Agent in its sole discretion) of the following additional conditions:

(a) Registration Statement Effective. The Registration Statement shall be effective and shall be available for all offers and sales of Placement Shares (i) that have been issued pursuant to all prior Placement Notices and (ii) that will be issued pursuant to any Placement Notice.

(b) Preliminary Sales Agreement Prospectus and Sales Agreement Prospectus. The Company shall have filed with the Commission the Preliminary Sales Agreement Prospectus not later than the Commission’s close of business on the second Business Day following the date of this Agreement. The Company shall have timely filed the Sales Agreement Prospectus with the Commission.

(c) No Material Notices. None of the following events shall have occurred and be continuing: (i) receipt by the Company or the Subsidiary of any request for additional information from the Commission or any other federal or state governmental authority during the period of effectiveness of the Registration Statement, the response to which would require any post-effective amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus; (ii) the issuance by the Commission or any other federal or state governmental authority of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or the initiation of any proceedings for that purpose; (iii) receipt by the Company or the Subsidiary of any notification with respect to the suspension of the qualification or exemption from qualification of any of the Placement Shares for sale in any jurisdiction or the initiation or threatening of

 

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any proceeding for such purpose; or (iv) the occurrence of any event that makes any material statement made in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or any material Incorporated Document untrue in any material respect or that requires the making of any changes in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or Incorporated Documents so that, in the case of the Registration Statement, it will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading and, in the case of the Prospectus, so that it will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

(d) No Misstatement or Material Omission. The Agent shall not have advised the Company that the Registration Statement or Prospectus, or any amendment or supplement thereto, contains an untrue statement of fact that in the Agent’s reasonable opinion is material, or omits to state a fact that in the Agent’s reasonable opinion is material and is required to be stated therein or is necessary to make the statements therein not misleading.

(e) Material Changes. Except as contemplated in the Prospectus, or disclosed in the Company’s reports filed with the Commission, there shall not have been any material adverse change, on a consolidated basis, in the authorized capital stock of the Company or any Material Adverse Effect or any development that would reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect, or any downgrading in or withdrawal of the rating assigned to any of the Company’s securities (other than asset backed securities), if any, by any rating organization or a public announcement by any rating organization that it has under surveillance or review its rating of any of the Company’s securities (other than asset backed securities), if any, the effect of which, in the judgment of the Agent (without relieving the Company of any obligation or liability it may otherwise have), is so material as to make it impracticable or inadvisable to proceed with the offering of the Placement Shares on the terms and in the manner contemplated in the Prospectus.

(f) Company Counsel Legal Opinions. The Agent shall have received the opinions and negative assurance letters, as applicable, of Company Counsel and Intellectual Property Counsel required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(n) and Section 7(o), as applicable, on or before the date on which such delivery of such opinions and negative assurance letters are required pursuant to Section 7(n) and Section 7(o), as applicable.

(g) Agent’s Counsel Legal Opinion. The Agent shall have received from Covington & Burling LLP, counsel for the Agent, such opinion or opinions, on or before the date on which the delivery of the Company Counsel legal opinion is required pursuant to Section 7(n), with respect to such matters as the Agent may reasonably require, and the Company shall have furnished to such counsel such documents as they may request to enable them to pass upon such matters.

(h) Comfort Letter. The Agent shall have received the Comfort Letter required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(p) on or before the date on which such delivery of such Comfort Letter is required pursuant to Section 7(p).

(i) Representation Certificate. The Agent shall have received the certificate required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(m) on or before the date on which delivery of such certificate is required pursuant to Section 7(m).

 

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(j) Secretary’s Certificate. On or prior to the First Placement Notice Date, the Agent shall have received a certificate, signed on behalf of the Company by the Secretary of the Company and attested to by an executive officer of the Company, dated as of such date and in form and substance satisfactory to the Agent and its counsel, certifying as to (i) the restated certificate of incorporation of the Company, (ii) the amended and restated bylaws of the Company, (iii) the resolutions of the board of directors of the Company or duly authorized committee thereof authorizing the execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement and the issuance and sale of the Placement Shares and (iv) the incumbency of the officers of the Company duly authorized to execute this Agreement and the other documents contemplated by this Agreement (including each of the officers set forth on Schedule 2).

(k) No Suspension. The Common Stock shall be duly listed, and admitted and authorized for trading, subject to official notice of issuance, on Nasdaq. Trading in the Common Stock shall not have been suspended on, and the Common Stock shall not have been delisted from, Nasdaq.

(l) Other Materials. On each date on which the Company is required to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 7(m), the Company shall have furnished to the Agent such appropriate further information, opinions, certificates, letters and other documents as the Agent may have reasonably requested. All such information, opinions, certificates, letters and other documents shall have been in compliance with the provisions hereof. The Company shall have furnished the Agent with conformed copies of such opinions, certificates, letters and other documents as the Agent may have reasonably requested.

(m) Securities Act Filings Made. All filings with the Commission required by Rule 424(b) or Rule 433 under the Securities Act to have been filed prior to the issuance of any Placement Notice hereunder shall have been made within the applicable time period prescribed for such filing by Rule 424(b) (without reliance on Rule 424(b)(8) of the Securities Act) or Rule 433, as applicable.

(n) Approval for Listing. Either (i) the Placement Shares shall have been approved for listing on Nasdaq, subject only to notice of issuance, or (ii) the Company shall have filed an application for listing of the Placement Shares on Nasdaq at, or prior to, the First Placement Notice Date and Nasdaq shall have reviewed such application and not provided any objections thereto.

(o) FINRA. FINRA shall have raised no objection to the terms of the offering contemplated hereby and the amount of compensation allowable or payable to the Agent as described in the Prospectus.

(p) No Termination Event. There shall not have occurred any event that would permit the Agent to terminate this Agreement pursuant to Section 11(a).

9. Indemnification and Contribution.

(a) Company Indemnification. The Company agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Agent, its affiliates and their respective partners, members, directors, officers, employees and agents, and each person, if any, who (i) controls the Agent within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act or (ii) is controlled by or is under common control with the Agent, in each case from and against any and all losses, claims, liabilities, expenses and damages, including any and all investigative, legal and other expenses reasonably incurred in connection with, and any and all amounts paid in settlement of (in accordance with this Section 9), any action, suit, investigation or proceeding between any of the indemnified parties and any indemnifying parties or between any indemnified party and any third party (including any governmental or self-regulatory authority, or otherwise, or any claim asserted or threatened), as and when incurred, to which the Agent, or any such other person may become subject under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act or other federal or state statutory law or regulation, at common law or otherwise, insofar as such losses, claims, liabilities,

 

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expenses or damages arise out of or are based, directly or indirectly, on (x) any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus) or in any free writing prospectus or in any application or other document executed by or on behalf of the Company or based on written information furnished by or on behalf of the Company filed in any jurisdiction in order to qualify the Common Stock under the securities laws thereof or filed with the Commission, (y) the omission or alleged omission to state in any such document a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein (solely with respect to the Prospectus, in light of the circumstances under which they were made) not misleading or (z) any breach by any of the indemnifying parties of any of their respective representations, warranties or agreements contained in this Agreement; provided, however, that this indemnity agreement shall not apply to the extent that such loss, claim, liability, expense or damage arises from the sale of the Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement and is caused, directly or indirectly, by an untrue statement or omission, or alleged untrue statement or omission, made in reliance upon and in conformity with the Agent’s Information. This indemnity agreement will be in addition to any liability that the Company might otherwise have.

(b) Agent Indemnification. The Agent agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Company and its directors and each officer of the Company who signed the Registration Statement, and each person, if any, who (i) controls the Company within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act or (ii) is controlled by or is under common control with the Company against any and all loss, liability, claim, damage and expense described in the indemnity contained in Section 9(a), as incurred, but only with respect to untrue statements or omissions, or alleged untrue statements or omissions, made in the Registration Statement (or any amendments thereto) or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto) in reliance upon and in conformity with the Agent’s Information.

(c) Procedure. Any party that proposes to assert the right to be indemnified under this Section 9 will, promptly after receipt of notice of commencement of any action against such party in respect of which a claim is to be made against an indemnifying party or parties under this Section 9, notify each such indemnifying party of the commencement of such action, enclosing a copy of all papers served, but the omission so to notify such indemnifying party will not relieve the indemnifying party from (i) any liability that it might have to any indemnified party otherwise than under this Section 9 and (ii) any liability that it may have to any indemnified party under the foregoing provision of this Section 9 unless, and only to the extent that, such omission results in the forfeiture of substantive rights or defenses by the indemnifying party. If any such action is brought against any indemnified party and it notifies the indemnifying party of its commencement, the indemnifying party will be entitled to participate in and, to the extent that it elects by delivering written notice to the indemnified party promptly after receiving notice of the commencement of the action from the indemnified party, jointly with any other indemnifying party similarly notified, to assume the defense of the action, with counsel reasonably satisfactory to the indemnified party, and after notice from the indemnifying party to the indemnified party of its election to assume the defense, the indemnifying party will not be liable to the indemnified party for any other legal expenses except as provided below and except for the reasonable costs of investigation subsequently incurred by the indemnified party in connection with the defense. The indemnified party will have the right to employ its own counsel in any such action, but the fees, expenses and other charges of such counsel will be at the expense of such indemnified party unless (1) the employment of counsel by the indemnified party has been authorized in writing by the indemnifying party, (2) the indemnified party has reasonably concluded (based on advice of counsel) that there may be legal defenses available to it or other indemnified parties that are different from or in addition to those available to the indemnifying party, (3) a conflict or potential conflict exists (based on advice of counsel to the indemnified party) between the indemnified party and the indemnifying party (in which case the

 

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indemnifying party will not have the right to direct the defense of such action on behalf of the indemnified party) or (4) the indemnifying party has not in fact employed counsel reasonably satisfactory to the indemnified party to assume the defense of such action within a reasonable time after receiving notice of the commencement of the action, in each of which cases the reasonable fees, disbursements and other charges of counsel will be at the expense of the indemnifying party or parties. It is understood that the indemnifying party or parties shall not, in connection with any proceeding or related proceedings in the same jurisdiction, be liable for the reasonable fees, disbursements and other charges of more than one separate firm (plus local counsel) admitted to practice in such jurisdiction at any one time for all such indemnified party or parties. All such fees, disbursements and other charges will be reimbursed by the indemnifying party promptly after the indemnifying party receives a written invoice relating to such fees, disbursements and other charges in reasonable detail. An indemnifying party will not, in any event, be liable for any settlement of any action or claim effected without its written consent. No indemnifying party shall, without the prior written consent of each indemnified party, settle or compromise or consent to the entry of any judgment in any pending or threatened claim, action or proceeding relating to the matters contemplated by this Section 9 (whether or not any indemnified party is a party thereto), unless such settlement, compromise or consent (1) includes an unconditional release of each indemnified party, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to such indemnified party, from all liability arising out of such claim, action or proceeding and (2) does not include a statement as to or an admission of fault, culpability or a failure to act by or on behalf of any indemnified party.

(d) Settlement Without Consent if Failure to Reimburse. If an indemnified party shall have requested an indemnifying party to reimburse the indemnified party for reasonable fees and expenses of counsel for which it is entitled to be reimbursed under this Section 9, such indemnifying party agrees that it shall be liable for any settlement of the nature contemplated by Section 9(a) effected without its written consent if (i) such settlement is entered into more than 45 days after receipt by such indemnifying party of the aforesaid request, (ii) such indemnifying party shall have received notice of the terms of such settlement at least 30 days prior to such settlement being entered into and (iii) such indemnifying party shall not have reimbursed such indemnified party in accordance with such request prior to the date of such settlement.

(e) Contribution. In order to provide for just and equitable contribution in circumstances in which the indemnification provided for in the foregoing paragraphs of this Section 9 is applicable in accordance with its terms but for any reason is held to be unavailable or insufficient from the Company or the Agent, the Company and the Agent will contribute to the total losses, claims, liabilities, expenses and damages (including any investigative, legal and other expenses reasonably incurred in connection with, and any amount paid in settlement of, any action, suit, investigation or proceeding or any claim asserted, but after deducting any contribution received by the Company from persons other than the Agent, such as persons who control the Company within the meaning of the Securities Act, officers of the Company who signed the Registration Statement and directors of the Company, who also may be liable for contribution) to which the Company and the Agent may be subject in such proportion as shall be appropriate to reflect the relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and the Agent on the other hand. The relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and the Agent on the other hand shall be deemed to be in the same proportion as the total Net Proceeds from the sale of the Placement Shares (before deducting expenses) received by the Company bear to the total compensation received by the Agent from the sale of Placement Shares on behalf of the Company. If, but only if, the allocation provided by the foregoing sentence is not permitted by applicable law, the allocation of contribution shall be made in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect not only the relative benefits referred to in the foregoing sentence but also the relative fault of the Company, on the one hand, and the Agent, on the other hand, with respect to the statements or omission that resulted in such loss, claim, liability, expense or damage, or action, suit, investigation or proceeding in respect thereof, as well as any other relevant

 

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equitable considerations with respect to such offering. Such relative fault shall be determined by reference to, among other things, whether the untrue or alleged untrue statement of a material fact or omission or alleged omission to state a material fact relates to information supplied by the Company or the Agent, the intent of the parties and their relative knowledge, access to information and opportunity to correct or prevent such statement or omission. The Company and the Agent agree that it would not be just and equitable if contributions pursuant to this Section 9(e) were to be determined by pro rata allocation or by any other method of allocation that does not take into account the equitable considerations referred to herein. The amount paid or payable by an indemnified party as a result of the loss, claim, liability, expense or damage, or action, suit, investigation or proceeding in respect thereof, referred to above in this Section 9(e) shall be deemed to include, for the purpose of this Section 9(e), any legal or other expenses reasonably incurred by such indemnified party in connection with investigating or defending any such action, suit, investigation, proceeding or claim to the extent consistent with this Section 9. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 9(e), the Agent shall not be required to contribute any amount in excess of the commissions received by it under this Agreement and no person found guilty of fraudulent misrepresentation (within the meaning of Section 11(f) of the Securities Act) will be entitled to contribution from any person who was not guilty of such fraudulent misrepresentation. For purposes of this Section 9(e), any person who controls a party to this Agreement within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act, any affiliates of the Agent, any partners, members, directors, officers, employees and agents of the Agent and each person that is controlled by or under common control with the Agent will have the same rights to contribution as that party, and each director of the Company and each officer of the Company who signed the Registration Statement will have the same rights to contribution as the Company, subject in each case to the provisions hereof. Any party entitled to contribution, promptly after receipt of notice of commencement of any action against such party in respect of which a claim for contribution may be made under this Section 9(e), will notify any such party or parties from whom contribution may be sought, but the omission to so notify will not relieve that party or parties from whom contribution may be sought from any other obligation it or they may have under this Section 9(e) except to the extent that the failure to so notify such other party materially prejudiced the substantive rights or defenses of the party from whom contribution is sought. Except for a settlement entered into pursuant to the last sentence of Section 9(c) hereof or pursuant to Section 9(d) hereof, no party will be liable for contribution with respect to any action or claim settled without its written consent if such consent is required pursuant to Section 9(c) hereof.

10. Representations and Agreements to Survive Delivery. The indemnity and contribution agreements contained in Section 9 of this Agreement and all representations and warranties of the Company herein or in certificates delivered pursuant hereto shall survive, as of their respective dates, regardless of (i) any investigation made by or on behalf of the Agent, any controlling persons, or the Company (or any of their respective officers, directors, employees or controlling persons), (ii) delivery and acceptance of the Placement Shares and payment therefor or (iii) any termination of this Agreement.

11. Termination.

(a) The Agent shall have the right, by giving notice as hereinafter specified, at any time to terminate this Agreement if (i) any Material Adverse Effect, or any development that could reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect, has occurred that, in the judgment of the Agent, may materially impair the ability of the Agent to sell the Placement Shares hereunder, (ii) the Company shall have failed, refused or been unable to perform any agreement on its part to be performed hereunder; provided, however, in the case of any failure of the Company to deliver (or cause another person to deliver) any certification, opinion or letter required under Section 7(m), Section 7(n), Section 7(o) or Section 7(p), the Agent’s right to terminate shall not arise unless such failure to deliver (or cause to be delivered) continues for more than 15 calendar days from the date such delivery was required, (iii) any

 

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other condition of the Agent’s obligations hereunder is not fulfilled, (iv) any suspension or limitation of trading in the Placement Shares or in securities generally on Nasdaq shall have occurred, (v) a general banking moratorium shall have been declared by any of United States federal or New York authorities, or (vi) there shall have occurred any outbreak or escalation of national or international hostilities or any crisis or calamity, or any change in the United States or international financial markets, or any substantial change or development involving a prospective substantial change in United States or international political, financial or economic conditions that, in the judgment of the Agent, may materially impair the ability of the Agent to sell the Placement Shares hereunder or to enforce contracts for the sale of securities. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 16 and Section 17 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination. If the Agent elects to terminate this Agreement as provided in this Section 11(a), the Agent shall provide the required notice as specified in Section 12.

(b) The Company shall have the right, by giving five days’ prior notice as hereinafter specified, to terminate this Agreement in its sole discretion at any time after the date of this Agreement. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 11(f), Section 16 and Section 17 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

(c) The Agent shall have the right, by giving five days’ prior notice as hereinafter specified, to terminate this Agreement in its sole discretion at any time after the date of this Agreement. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 11(f), Section 16 and Section 17 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

(d) Unless earlier terminated pursuant to this Section 11, this Agreement shall automatically terminate upon the issuance and sale of all of the Placement Shares through the Agent on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein; provided that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 11(f), Section 16 and Section 17 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

(e) This Agreement shall remain in full force and effect unless terminated pursuant to Sections 11(a), (b), (c), or (d) above or otherwise by mutual agreement of the parties; provided, however, that any such termination by mutual agreement shall in all cases be deemed to provide that Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 11(f), Section 16 and Section 17 shall remain in full force and effect.

(f) Any termination of this Agreement shall be effective on the date specified in such notice of termination; provided, however, that such termination shall not be effective until the close of business on the date of receipt of such notice by the Agent or the Company, as the case may be. If such termination shall occur prior to the Settlement Date for any sale of Placement Shares, such Placement Shares shall settle in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement. Upon termination of this Agreement, the Company shall not be required to pay to the Agent any discount or commission with respect to any Placement Shares not otherwise sold by the Agent under this Agreement; provided, however, that the Company shall remain obligated to reimburse the Agent’s expenses pursuant to Section 7(g).

 

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12. Notices. All notices or other communications required or permitted to be given by any party to any other party pursuant to the terms of this Agreement shall be in writing, unless otherwise specified in this Agreement, and if sent to the Agent, shall be delivered to:

SVB Leerink LLC

1301 Avenue of the Americas, 12th Floor

New York, New York 10019

Attention: Peter M. Fry

E-mail: peter.fry@svbleerink.com

with copies (which shall not constitute notice) to:

SVB Leerink LLC

1301 Avenue of the Americas, 12th Floor

New York, New York 10019

Attention: Stuart R. Nayman, Esq.

E-mail: stuart.nayman@svbleerink.com

and

Covington & Burling LLP

The New York Times Building

620 Eighth Avenue

New York, New York 10018

Attention: Brian K. Rosenzweig

E-mail: brosenzweig@cov.com

and if to the Company, shall be delivered to:

195 Church Street, 14th Floor

New Haven, Connecticut 06510

Attention: Jennifer L. Good

E-mail: jennifer.good@trevitherapeutics.com

with a copy (which shall not constitute notice) to:

Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP

60 State Street

Boston, Massachusetts 02109

Attention: Stuart M. Falber

E-mail: stuart.falber@wilmerhale.com

Each party to this Agreement may change such address for notices by sending to the parties to this Agreement written notice of a new address for such purpose. Each such notice or other communication shall be deemed given (i) when delivered personally on or before 4:30 P.M., New York City time, on a Business Day, or, if such day is not a Business Day, on the next succeeding Business Day, (ii) by Electronic Notice as set forth in the next paragraph, (iii) on the next Business Day after timely delivery to a nationally-recognized overnight courier or (iv) on the Business Day actually received if deposited in the U.S. mail (certified or registered mail, return receipt requested, postage prepaid). For purposes of this Agreement, “Business Day” shall mean any day on which the Nasdaq and commercial banks in the City of New York are open for business.

 

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An electronic communication (“Electronic Notice”) shall be deemed written notice for purposes of this Section 12 if sent to the electronic mail address specified by the receiving party in Section 12. Electronic Notice shall be deemed received at the time the party sending Electronic Notice receives actual acknowledgment of receipt from the person to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply. Any party receiving Electronic Notice may request and shall be entitled to receive the notice on paper, in a nonelectronic form (“Nonelectronic Notice”), which shall be sent to the requesting party within 10 days of receipt of the written request for Nonelectronic Notice.

13. Successors and Assigns. This Agreement shall inure to the benefit of and be binding upon the Company and the Agent and their respective successors and the affiliates, controlling persons, officers, directors and other persons referred to in Section 9 hereof. References to any of the parties contained in this Agreement shall be deemed to include the successors and permitted assigns of each such party. Nothing in this Agreement, express or implied, is intended to confer upon any party other than the parties hereto, the persons referred to in the preceding sentence and their respective successors and permitted assigns any rights, remedies, obligations or liabilities under or by reason of this Agreement, except as expressly provided in this Agreement. Neither party may assign its rights or obligations under this Agreement without the prior written consent of the other party; provided, however, that the Agent may assign its rights and obligations hereunder to an affiliate of the Agent without obtaining the Company’s consent, so long as such affiliate is a registered broker-dealer.

14. Adjustments for Share Splits. The parties acknowledge and agree that all share-related numbers contained in this Agreement shall be adjusted to take into account any share split, share dividend or similar event effected with respect to the Common Stock.

15. Entire Agreement; Amendment; Severability; Waiver. This Agreement (including all schedules (as amended pursuant to this Agreement) and exhibits attached hereto and Placement Notices issued pursuant hereto) constitutes the entire agreement and supersedes all other prior and contemporaneous agreements and undertakings, both written and oral, among the parties hereto with regard to the subject matter hereof. Neither this Agreement nor any term hereof may be amended except pursuant to a written instrument executed by the Company and the Agent; provided, however, that Schedule 2 of this Agreement may be amended by either party from time to time by sending a notice containing a revised Schedule 2 to the other party in the manner provided in Section 12 and, upon such amendment, all references herein to Schedule 2 shall automatically be deemed to refer to such amended Schedule 2. In the event that any one or more of the provisions contained herein, or the application thereof in any circumstance, is held invalid, illegal or unenforceable as written by a court of competent jurisdiction, then such provision shall be given full force and effect to the fullest possible extent that it is valid, legal and enforceable, and the remainder of the terms and provisions herein shall be construed as if such invalid, illegal or unenforceable term or provision was not contained herein, but only to the extent that giving effect to such provision and the remainder of the terms and provisions hereof shall be in accordance with the intent of the parties as reflected in this Agreement. No implied waiver by a party shall arise in the absence of a waiver in writing signed by such party. No failure or delay in exercising any right, power, or privilege hereunder shall operate as a waiver thereof, nor shall any single or partial exercise thereof preclude any other or further exercise thereof or the exercise of any right, power, or privilege hereunder.

16. GOVERNING LAW AND TIME; WAIVER OF JURY TRIAL. THIS AGREEMENT SHALL BE GOVERNED BY AND CONSTRUED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE LAWS OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK WITHOUT REGARD TO THE PRINCIPLES OF CONFLICTS OF LAWS. SPECIFIED TIMES OF DAY REFER TO NEW YORK CITY TIME. EACH PARTY HEREBY IRREVOCABLY WAIVES, TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, ANY AND ALL RIGHT TO TRIAL BY JURY IN ANY LEGAL PROCEEDING ARISING OUT OF OR RELATING TO THIS AGREEMENT OR THE TRANSACTIONS CONTEMPLATED HEREBY.

 

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17. Consent to Jurisdiction. Each party hereby irrevocably submits to the exclusive jurisdiction of the state and federal courts sitting in the City of New York, Borough of Manhattan, for the adjudication of any dispute hereunder or in connection with any of the transactions contemplated hereby, and hereby irrevocably waives, and agrees not to assert in any suit, action or proceeding, any claim that it is not personally subject to the jurisdiction of any such court, that such suit, action or proceeding is brought in an inconvenient forum, or that the venue of such suit, action or proceeding is improper. Each party hereby irrevocably waives personal service of process and consents to process being served in any such suit, action or proceeding by mailing a copy (certified or registered mail, return receipt requested) to such party at the address in effect for notices under Section 12 of this Agreement and agrees that such service shall constitute good and sufficient notice of process and notice thereof. Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to limit in any way any right to serve process in any manner permitted by law.

18. Construction.

(a) The section and exhibit headings herein are for convenience only and shall not affect the construction hereof.

(b) Words defined in the singular shall have a comparable meaning when used in the plural, and vice versa.

(c) The words “hereof,” “hereto,” “herein” and “hereunder” and words of similar import, when used in this Agreement, shall refer to this Agreement as a whole and not to any particular provision of this Agreement.

(d) Wherever the word “include,” “includes” or “including” is used in this Agreement, it shall be deemed to be followed by the words “without limitation.”

(e) References herein to any gender shall include each other gender.

(f) References herein to any law, statute, ordinance, code, regulation, rule or other requirement of any governmental authority shall be deemed to refer to such law, statute, ordinance, code, regulation, rule or other requirement of any governmental authority as amended, reenacted, supplemented or superseded in whole or in part and in effect from time to time and also to all rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

19. Permitted Free Writing Prospectuses. Each of the Company and the Agent represents, warrants and agrees that, unless it obtains the prior written consent of the other party, which consent shall not be unreasonably withheld, conditioned or delayed, it has not made and will not make any offer relating to the Placement Shares that would constitute an issuer free writing prospectus, or that would otherwise constitute a free writing prospectus (as defined in Rule 405), required to be filed with the Commission. Any such free writing prospectus consented to by the Agent or by the Company, as the case may be, is hereinafter referred to as a “Permitted Free Writing Prospectus.” The Company represents and warrants that it has treated and agrees that it will treat each Permitted Free Writing Prospectus as an issuer free writing prospectus, and that it has complied and will comply with the requirements of Rule 433 applicable to any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus, including timely filing with the Commission where required, legending and record keeping.

 

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20. Absence of Fiduciary Relationship. The Company acknowledges and agrees that:

(a) the Agent has been retained to act as sales agent in connection with the sale of the Placement Shares, the Agent has acted at arms’ length and no fiduciary or advisory relationship between the Company or any of its respective affiliates, stockholders (or other equity holders), creditors or employees or any other party, on the one hand, and the Agent, on the other hand, has been or will be created in respect of any of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, irrespective of whether the Agent has advised or is advising the Company on other matters and the Agent has no duties or obligations to the Company with respect to the transactions contemplated by this Agreement except the obligations expressly set forth herein;

(b) the Company is capable of evaluating, and understanding and understands and accepts, the terms, risks and conditions of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement;

(c) neither the Agent nor its affiliates have provided any legal, accounting, regulatory or tax advice with respect to the transactions contemplated by this Agreement and it has consulted its own legal, accounting, regulatory and tax advisors to the extent it has deemed appropriate;

(d) the Company has been advised and is aware that the Agent and its affiliates are engaged in a broad range of transactions which may involve interests that differ from those of the Company and that the Agent and its affiliates have no obligation to disclose such interests and transactions to the Company by virtue of any fiduciary, advisory or agency relationship or otherwise, provided that the Agent hereby agrees not to engage in any such transaction which would be prohibited under Regulation M; and

(e) the Company waives, to the fullest extent permitted by law, any claims it may have against the Agent or its affiliates for breach of fiduciary duty or alleged breach of fiduciary duty in connection with the transactions contemplated by this Agreement and agrees that the Agent and its affiliates shall have no liability (whether direct or indirect) to the Company in respect of such a fiduciary claim or to any person asserting a fiduciary duty claim on behalf of or in right of the Company, including stockholders (or other equity holders), creditors or employees of the Company.

21. Counterparts. This Agreement may be executed in two or more counterparts, each of which shall be deemed an original, but all of which together shall constitute one and the same instrument. Delivery of an executed Agreement by one party to the other may be made by facsimile or electronic transmission.

22. Use of Information. The Agent may not provide any information gained in connection with this Agreement and the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, including due diligence, to any third party other than its legal counsel advising it on this Agreement and the transactions contemplated by this Agreement unless expressly approved by the Company in writing.

23. Agent’s Information. As used in this Agreement, “Agent’s Information” means solely the following information in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus: the last sentence of the eighth paragraph and the tenth paragraph under the heading “Plan of Distribution” in the Sales Agreement Prospectus.

All references in this Agreement to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement to any of the foregoing shall be deemed to include the copy filed with the Commission pursuant to EDGAR. All references in this Agreement to financial statements and schedules and other

 

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information that is “contained,” “included” or “stated” in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus (and all other references of like import) shall be deemed to mean and include all such financial statements and schedules and other information that is incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, as the case may be.

All references in this Agreement to “supplements” to the Prospectus shall include any supplements, “wrappers” or similar materials prepared in connection with any offering, sale or private placement of any Placement Shares by the Agent outside of the United States.

[Remainder of Page Intentionally Blank]

 

37


If the foregoing correctly sets forth the understanding between the Company and the Agent, please so indicate in the space provided below for that purpose, whereupon this letter shall constitute a binding agreement between the Company and the Agent.

 

Very truly yours,
TREVI THERAPEUTICS, INC.
By:  

/s/ Jennifer Good

  Name: Jennifer Good
  Title: Chief Executive Officer
ACCEPTED as of the date
first-above written:
SVB LEERINK LLC
By:  

/s/ Peter M. Fry

  Name: Peter M. Fry
  Title: Head of Alternative Equities

[Signature Page to Sales Agreement]


SCHEDULE 1

FORM OF PLACEMENT NOTICE

 

From:    [                                    ]
   [TITLE]
   Trevi Therapeutics, Inc.
Cc:    [                                    ]
To:    SVB Leerink LLC
Subject:    SVB Leerink—At the Market Offering—Placement Notice

Ladies and Gentlemen:

Pursuant to the terms and subject to the conditions contained in the Sales Agreement, dated June 26, 2020 (the “Agreement”), by and between Trevi Therapeutics, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), and SVB Leerink LLC (“SVB Leerink”), I hereby request on behalf of the Company that SVB Leerink sell up to [ ] shares of common stock, $0.001 par value per share, of the Company (the “Shares”), at a minimum market price of $     per share[; provided that no more than [ ] Shares shall be sold in any one Trading Day (as such term is defined in Section 3 of the Agreement)]. Sales should begin [on the date of this Placement Notice] and end on [DATE] [until all Shares that are the subject of this Placement Notice are sold].


SCHEDULE 2

The Company

Jennifer L. Good

Christopher J. Seiter

SVB Leerink

Gabriel Cavazos

Brian Swanson

Oren Karsen

atm@svbleerink.com


SCHEDULE 3

Compensation

The Company shall pay SVB Leerink compensation in cash equal to 3.0% of the gross proceeds from the sales of Placement Shares pursuant to the terms of the Sales Agreement of which this Schedule 3 forms a part.


Exhibit 7(m)

OFFICERS’ CERTIFICATE

Each of Jennifer L. Good, the duly qualified and elected Chief Executive Officer of Trevi Therapeutics, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), and Christopher J. Seiter, the duly qualified and elected Chief Financial Officer of the Company, does hereby certify in her or his respective capacity and on behalf of the Company, pursuant to Section 7(m) of the Sales Agreement, dated June 26, 2020 (the “Sales Agreement”), by and between the Company and SVB Leerink LLC, that, after due inquiry, to the best of the knowledge of the undersigned:

(i) The representations and warranties of the Company in Section 6 of the Sales Agreement (A) to the extent such representations and warranties are subject to qualifications and exceptions contained therein relating to materiality or Material Adverse Effect, are true and correct on and as of the date hereof with the same force and effect as if expressly made on and as of the date hereof, and (B) to the extent such representations and warranties are not subject to any qualifications or exceptions relating to materiality or Material Adverse Effect, are true and correct in all material respects as of the date hereof as if made on and as of the date hereof with the same force and effect as if expressly made on and as of the date hereof.

(ii) The Company has complied with all agreements and satisfied all conditions on its part to be performed or satisfied pursuant to the Sales Agreement at or prior to the date hereof.

(iii) As of the date hereof, (A) the Registration Statement complies in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act and does not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary in order to make the statements therein not misleading, (B) the Prospectus complies in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act does not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary in order to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading and (C) no event has occurred as a result of which it is necessary to amend or supplement the Registration Statement or the Prospectus in order to make the statements therein not untrue or misleading or for clauses (A) and (B) above, to be true and correct.

(iv) There has been no material adverse change in the condition, financial or otherwise, or in the earnings, business affairs or business prospects of the Company and the Subsidiary, considered as one enterprise, whether or not arising in the ordinary course of business, since the date as of which information is given in the Prospectus, as amended or supplemented to the date hereof.

(v) The Company does not possess any material non-public information.

(vi) The maximum amount of Placement Shares that may be sold pursuant to each outstanding Placement Notice has been duly authorized by the Company’s board of directors or a duly authorized committee thereof pursuant to a resolution or unanimous written consent in accordance with the Company’s restated certificate of incorporation, amended and restated bylaws and applicable law.

Capitalized terms used but not defined herein shall have the meanings ascribed to them in the Sales Agreement.


IN WITNESS WHEREOF, each of the undersigned, in such individual’s respective capacity as Chief Executive Officer or Chief Financial Officer of the Company, has executed this Officers’ Certificate on behalf of the Company.

 

By:  

 

  Name: Jennifer L. Good
  Title: Chief Executive Officer
  Date:
By:  

 

  Name: Christopher J. Seiter
  Title: Chief Financial Officer
  Date:
EX-4.3

Exhibit 4.3

TREVI THERAPEUTICS, INC.

and

 

 

Trustee

INDENTURE

Dated as of                     

SENIOR DEBT SECURITIES


CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE1

 

Section of
Trust Indenture Act
of 1939, as amended

  

Section of
Indenture

310(a)    6.09
310(b)    6.08
   6.10
310(c)    Inapplicable
311(a)    6.13
311(b)    6.13
311(c)    Inapplicable
312(a)    4.01
4.04
312(b)    4.04(c)
312(c)    4.04(c)
313(a)    4.03
313(b)    4.03
313(c)    4.03
313(d)    4.03
314(a)    4.02
314(b)    Inapplicable
314(c)    2.04
8.04
9.01(c)
10.01(b)
11.05
314(d)    Inapplicable
314(e)    11.05
314(f)    Inapplicable
315(a)    6.01
6.02
315(b)    5.11
315(c)    6.01
315(d)    6.01
   6.02
315(e)    5.12
316(a)    5.09
5.10
   7.04
316(b)    5.06
5.10
316(c)    7.02
317(a)    5.04
317(b)    3.04
318(a)    11.07

 

1 

This Cross-Reference Table does not constitute part of the Indenture and shall not have any bearing on the interpretation of any of its terms or provisions.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

         PAGE  

ARTICLE 1  DEFINITIONS

     1  

Section 1.01

 

Certain Terms Defined

     1  

ARTICLE 2  SECURITIES

     7  

Section 2.01

 

Forms Generally

     7  

Section 2.02

 

Form of Trustee’s Certificate of Authentication

     7  

Section 2.03

 

Amount Unlimited; Issuable in Series

     7  

Section 2.04

 

Authentication and Delivery of Securities

     10  

Section 2.05

 

Execution of Securities

     11  

Section 2.06

 

Certificate of Authentication

     12  

Section 2.07

 

Denomination and Date of Securities; Payments of Interest

     12  

Section 2.08

 

Registration, Transfer and Exchange

     12  

Section 2.09

 

Mutilated, Defaced, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities

     15  

Section 2.10

 

Cancellation of Securities; Destruction Thereof

     15  

Section 2.11

 

Temporary Securities

     16  

ARTICLE 3  COVENANTS OF THE ISSUER

     16  

Section 3.01

 

Payment of Principal and Interest

     16  

Section 3.02

 

Offices for Payments, Etc

     16  

Section 3.03

 

Appointment to Fill a Vacancy in Office of Trustee

     17  

Section 3.04

 

Paying Agents

     17  

Section 3.05

 

Written Statement to Trustee

     18  

ARTICLE 4  SECURITYHOLDERS LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE ISSUER AND THE TRUSTEE

     18  

Section 4.01

 

Issuer to Furnish Trustee Information as to Names and Addresses of Securityholders

     18  

Section 4.02

 

Reports by the Issuer

     18  

Section 4.03

 

Reports by the Trustee

     18  

Section 4.04

 

Preservation of Information; Communication with Securityholders

     19  

ARTICLE 5  REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT

     19  

Section 5.01

 

Event of Default Defined; Acceleration of Maturity; Waiver of Default

     19  

Section 5.02

 

Collection of Debt by Trustee; Trustee May Prove Debt

     21  

Section 5.03

 

Application of Proceeds

     23  

Section 5.04

 

Suits for Enforcement

     24  

Section 5.05

 

Restoration of Rights on Abandonment of Proceedings

     24  

Section 5.06

 

Limitations on Suits by Securityholders

     25  

Section 5.07

 

Unconditional Right of Securityholders to Institute Certain Suits

     25  

 

i


Section 5.08

 

Powers and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver of Default

     25  

Section 5.09

 

Control by Holders of Securities

     26  

Section 5.10

 

Waiver of Past Defaults

     26  

Section 5.11

 

Trustee to Give Notice of Default

     27  

Section 5.12

 

Right of Court to Require Filing of Undertaking to Pay Costs

     27  

ARTICLE 6  CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE

     27  

Section 6.01

 

Duties and Responsibilities of the Trustee; During Default; Prior to Default

     27  

Section 6.02

 

Certain Rights of the Trustee

     28  

Section 6.03

 

Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals, Disposition of Securities or Application of Proceeds Thereof

     29  

Section 6.04

 

Trustee and Agents May Hold Securities; Collections, Etc

     30  

Section 6.05

 

Moneys Held by Trustee

     30  

Section 6.06

 

Compensation and Indemnification of Trustee and Its Prior Claim

     30  

Section 6.07

 

Right of Trustee to Rely on Officer’s Certificate, Etc

     30  

Section 6.08

 

Disqualification; Conflicting Interests

     31  

Section 6.09

 

Persons Eligible for Appointment as Trustee

     31  

Section 6.10

 

Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor Trustee

     31  

Section 6.11

 

Acceptance of Appointment by Successor Trustee

     32  

Section 6.12

 

Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business of Trustee

     33  

Section 6.13

 

Preferential Collection of Claims Against the Issuer

     34  

ARTICLE 7  CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS

     34  

Section 7.01

 

Evidence of Action Taken by Securityholders

     34  

Section 7.02

 

Proof of Execution of Instruments and of Holding of Securities

     34  

Section 7.03

 

Holders to Be Treated as Owners

     34  

Section 7.04

 

Securities Owned by Issuer Deemed Not Outstanding

     35  

Section 7.05

 

Right of Revocation of Action Taken

     35  

ARTICLE 8  SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES

     35  

Section 8.01

 

Supplemental Indentures Without Consent of Securityholders

     35  

Section 8.02

 

Supplemental Indentures With Consent of Securityholders

     37  

Section 8.03

 

Effect of Supplemental Indenture

     38  

Section 8.04

 

Documents to Be Given to Trustee

     38  

Section 8.05

 

Notation on Securities in Respect of Supplemental Indentures

     39  

ARTICLE 9  CONSOLIDATION, MERGER, SALE OR CONVEYANCE

     39  

Section 9.01

 

Issuer May Consolidate, Etc., on Certain Terms

     39  

Section 9.02

 

Successor Issuer Substituted

     39  

ARTICLE 10 SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE OF INDENTURE; DEFEASANCE; UNCLAIMED MONEYS

     40  

Section 10.01

 

Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture; Defeasance

     40  

 

ii


Section 10.02

 

Application by Trustee of Funds Deposited for Payment of Securities

     44  

Section 10.03

 

Repayment of Moneys Held by Paying Agent

     44  

Section 10.04

 

Return of Moneys Held by Trustee and Paying Agent Unclaimed for Two Years

     45  

Section 10.05

 

Indemnity for U.S. Government Obligations and Foreign Government Obligations

     45  

ARTICLE 11 MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

     45  

Section 11.01

 

No Recourse

     45  

Section 11.02

 

Provisions of Indenture for the Sole Benefit of Parties and Holders of Securities

     45  

Section 11.03

 

Successors and Assigns of Issuer Bound by Indenture

     46  

Section 11.04

 

Notices and Demands on Issuer, Trustee and Holders of Securities

     46  

Section 11.05

 

Officer’s Certificates and Opinions of Counsel; Statements to Be Contained Therein

     46  

Section 11.06

 

Payments Due on Saturdays, Sundays and Holidays

     47  

Section 11.07

 

Conflict of Any Provision of Indenture With Trust Indenture Act of 1939

     48  

Section 11.08

 

New York Law to Govern

     48  

Section 11.09

 

Counterparts

     48  

Section 11.10

 

Effect of Headings

     48  

Section 11.11

 

Actions by Successor

     48  

Section 11.12

 

Severability

     48  

ARTICLE 12 REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUNDS

     48  

Section 12.01

 

Applicability of Article

     48  

Section 12.02

 

Notice of Redemption; Partial Redemptions

     48  

Section 12.03

 

Payment of Securities Called for Redemption

     50  

Section 12.04

 

Exclusion of Certain Securities from Eligibility for Selection for Redemption

     50  

Section 12.05

 

Mandatory and Optional Sinking Funds

     51  

 

iii


THIS INDENTURE, dated as of                      between Trevi Therapeutics, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Issuer”), and                      (the “Trustee”),

W I T N E S S E T H :

WHEREAS, the Issuer may from time to time duly authorize the issue of its unsecured debentures, notes or other evidences of indebtedness to be issued in one or more series (the “Securities”) up to such principal amount or amounts as may from time to time be authorized in accordance with the terms of this Indenture;

WHEREAS, the Issuer has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture to provide, among other things, for the authentication, delivery and administration of the Securities; and

WHEREAS, all things necessary to make this Indenture a valid indenture and agreement according to its terms have been done;

NOW, THEREFORE:

In consideration of the premises and the purchases of the Securities by the holders thereof, the Issuer and the Trustee mutually covenant and agree for the equal and proportionate benefit of the respective holders from time to time of the Securities as follows:

ARTICLE 1

DEFINITIONS

Section 1.01 Certain Terms Defined. The following terms (except as otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise clearly requires) for all purposes of this Indenture and of any indenture supplemental hereto shall have the respective meanings specified in this Section. All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined in the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 or the definitions of which in the Securities Act of 1933, as amended are referred to in the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, including terms defined therein by reference to the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (except as herein otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise clearly requires), shall have the meanings assigned to such terms in said Trust Indenture Act and in said Securities Act of 1933 as in force at the date of this Indenture. All accounting terms used herein and not expressly defined shall have the meanings assigned to such terms in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and the term “generally accepted accounting principles” means such accounting principles as are generally accepted in the United States at the time of any computation. The words “herein”, “hereof” and “hereunder” and other words of similar import refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision. The terms defined in this Article have the meanings assigned to them in this Article and include the plural as well as the singular.

“Additional Amounts” means any additional amounts that are required by this Indenture or by any Security, under circumstances specified herein or therein, to be paid by the Issuer in respect of certain taxes, assessments or other governmental charges imposed on Holders specified therein and which are owing to such Holders.


Applicable Procedures” means, with respect to a Depositary, as to any matter at any time, the policies and procedures of such Depositary, if any, that are applicable to such matter at such time.

Board of Directors” means either the Board of Directors of the Issuer or any committee of such Board duly authorized to act on its behalf.

Board Resolution” means a copy of one or more resolutions, certified by the secretary or an assistant secretary of the Issuer to have been duly adopted by the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect, and delivered to the Trustee.

Business Day” means, with respect to any Security, a day that in the city (or in any of the cities, if more than one) in which amounts are payable, as specified in the form of such Security, is not a day on which banking institutions are authorized or required by law or regulation to close.

“Capital Stock” means (a) in the case of a corporation, corporate stock; (b) in the case of an association or business entity, any and all shares, interests, participations, rights or other equivalents (however designated) of corporate stock; (c) in the case of a partnership or limited liability company, partnership interests (whether general or limited) or membership interests; and (d) any other interest or participation that confers on a Person the right to receive a share of the profits and losses of, or distributions of assets of, the issuing Person, but excluding from all of the foregoing any Debt securities convertible into Capital Stock, whether or not such Debt securities include any right of participation with Capital Stock.

Commission” means the Securities and Exchange Commission, as from time to time constituted, created under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, or if at any time after the execution and delivery of this Indenture such Commission is not existing and performing the duties now assigned to it under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, then the body performing such duties on such date.

Common Stock” means shares of common stock, par value $0.001 per share, of the Issuer as the same exists at the date of execution and delivery of this Indenture or as such stock may be reconstituted from time to time.

Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which the corporate trust business of the Trustee shall, at any particular time, be principally administered, which office is, at the date as of which this Indenture is dated, located at                     .

Debt” of any Person means any debt for money borrowed which is created, assumed, incurred or guaranteed in any manner by such Person or for which such Person is otherwise responsible or liable, and shall expressly include any such guaranty thereof by such Person. For the purpose of computing the amount of the Debt of any Person there shall be excluded all Debt of such Person for the payment or redemption or satisfaction of which money or securities (or evidences of such Debt, if permitted under the terms of the instrument creating such Debt) in the necessary amount shall have been deposited in trust with the proper depositary, whether upon or prior to the maturity or the date fixed for redemption of such Debt; and, in any instance where Debt is so excluded, for the purpose of computing the assets of such Person there shall be excluded the money, securities or evidences of Debt deposited by such Person in trust for the purpose of paying or satisfying such Debt.

 

2


Depositary” means, with respect to the Securities of any series issuable or issued in the form of one or more Global Securities, the Person designated as Depositary by the Issuer pursuant to Section 2.04 until a successor Depositary shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Depositary” shall mean or include each Person who is then a Depositary hereunder, and if at any time there is more than one such Person, “Depositary” as used with respect to the Securities of any such series shall mean the Depositary with respect to the Global Securities of that series.

Dollar” means the currency of the United States of America as at the time of payment is legal tender for the payment of public and private debts.

Event of Default” means any event or condition specified as such in Section 5.01.

Foreign Currency” means a currency issued by the government of a country other than the United States.

“Foreign Government Obligation” means (a) a direct obligation of the government of a country other than the United States of America, backed by the full faith and credit of such government, (b) an obligation of a Person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of such government, the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by such government or (c) any depositary receipt issued by a bank (as defined in Section 3(a)(2) of the Securities Act of 1933) as custodian with respect to any Foreign Government Obligation which is specified in clause (a) and held by such bank for the account of the holder of such depositary receipt, or with respect to any specific payment of principal of or interest on any such Foreign Government Obligation which is so specified and held, provided that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depositary receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the Foreign Government Obligation or the specific payment of principal or interest evidenced by such depositary receipt.

Global Security” means a Security evidencing all or a part of a series of Securities, issued to the Depositary for such series in accordance with Section 2.04, and bearing the legend prescribed in Section 2.04.

Holder”, “holder”, “holder of Securities”, “Securityholder” or other similar terms mean the Person in whose name such Security is registered in the Security register kept by the Issuer for that purpose in accordance with the terms hereof.

Indenture” means this instrument as originally executed and delivered or, if amended or supplemented as herein provided, as so amended or supplemented or both, and shall include the forms and terms of particular series of Securities established as contemplated hereunder.

interest”, unless the context otherwise requires, refers to interest, and when used with respect to non-interest bearing Securities, refers to interest payable after maturity, if any.

 

3


Interest Payment Date”, with respect to any Security, means the Stated Maturity of an installment of interest on such Security.

Issuer” means Trevi Therapeutics, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and, subject to Article 9, its successors and assigns.

Issuer Order” means a written statement, request or order of the Issuer signed in its name by the chairman of the Board of Directors, the president or any vice president of the Issuer.

“Notice of Default” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 5.01(c).

Officers Certificate” means a certificate signed by the chairman of the Board of Directors, the president, any vice president, the treasurer, the secretary or any assistant secretary of the Issuer and delivered to the Trustee. Each such certificate shall comply with Section 314 of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and, except to the extent provided herein, shall include the statements provided for in Section 11.05.

Opinion of Counsel” means an opinion in writing signed by the general corporate counsel or such other legal counsel who may be an employee of or counsel to the Issuer and who shall be satisfactory to the Trustee. Each such opinion shall comply with Section 314 of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and shall include the statements provided for in Section 11.05, if and to the extent required hereby.

original issue date” of any Security (or portion thereof) means the earlier of (a) the date of such Security or (b) the date of any Security (or portion thereof) for which such Security was issued (directly or indirectly) on registration of transfer, exchange or substitution.

Original Issue Discount Security” means any Security that provides for an amount less than the principal amount thereof to be due and payable upon a declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 5.01.

Outstanding”, when used with reference to Securities, shall, subject to the provisions of Section 7.04, mean, as of any particular time, all Securities authenticated and delivered by the Trustee under this Indenture, except

 

  (a)

Securities theretofore cancelled by the Trustee or delivered to the Trustee for cancellation;

 

  (b)

Securities, or portions thereof, for the payment or redemption of which cash, U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations (as provided for in Section 10.01(a) and Section 10.01(b)) in the necessary amount shall have been deposited in trust with the Trustee or with any paying agent (other than the Issuer) or shall have been set aside, segregated and held in trust by the Issuer for the Holders of such Securities (if the Issuer shall act as its own paying agent); provided, that if such Securities, or portions thereof, are to be redeemed prior to the maturity thereof, notice of such redemption shall have been given as herein provided, or provision satisfactory to the Trustee shall have been made for giving such notice;

 

4


  (c)

Securities as to which Legal Defeasance shall have been effected pursuant to Section 10.01(b);

 

  (d)

Securities in substitution for which other Securities shall have been authenticated and delivered, or which shall have been paid, pursuant to the terms of Section 2.09 (except with respect to any such Security as to which proof satisfactory to the Trustee is presented that such Security is held by a Person in whose hands such Security is a legal, valid and binding obligation of the Issuer), Securities converted into Common Stock pursuant hereto and Securities not deemed outstanding pursuant to Section 12.02; and

 

  (e)

Securities as to which any property deliverable upon conversion thereof has been delivered (or such delivery has been made available), or as to which any other particular conditions have been satisfied, in each case as may be provided for such Securities as contemplated in Section 2.03.

In determining whether the Holders of the requisite principal amount of Outstanding Securities of any or all series have given any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver hereunder, (A) the principal amount of an Original Issue Discount Security that shall be deemed to be Outstanding for such purposes shall be the amount of the principal thereof that would be due and payable as of the date of such determination upon a declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 5.01, (B) if, as of such date, the principal amount payable at the Stated Maturity of a Security is not determinable, the principal amount of such Security which shall be deemed to be Outstanding shall be the amount as specified or determined as contemplated by Section 2.03, and (C) the principal amount of a Security denominated in one or more foreign currencies, composite currencies or currency units which shall be deemed to be Outstanding shall be the U.S. dollar equivalent, determined as of such date in the manner provided as contemplated by Section 2.03, of the principal amount of such Security (or, in the case of a Security described in clause (A) or (B) above, of the amount determined as provided in such clause).

Person” means any individual, corporation, partnership, limited partnership, limited liability company, joint venture, association, joint stock company, trust, unincorporated organization or government or any agency or political subdivision thereof.

principal” whenever used with reference to the Securities or any Security or any portion thereof, shall be deemed to include “and premium, if any”.

“record date” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 2.07.

Responsible Officer”, when used with respect to the Trustee, means the chairman of the board of directors, any vice chairman of the board of directors, the chairman of the trust committee, the chairman of the executive committee, any vice chairman of the executive committee, the president, any vice president, the cashier, the secretary, the treasurer, any trust

 

5


officer, any assistant trust officer, any assistant vice president, any assistant cashier, any assistant secretary, any assistant treasurer, or any other officer or assistant officer of the Trustee customarily performing functions similar to those performed by the persons who at the time shall be such officers, respectively, or to whom any corporate trust matter is referred because of his or her knowledge of and familiarity with the particular subject.

Security” or “Securities” has the meaning stated in the first recital of this Indenture, or, as the case may be, Securities that have been authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.

Security Registrar” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 4.01(b).

Stated Maturity”, with respect to any Security or any installment of principal thereof or interest thereon or any Additional Amounts with respect thereto, means the date established by or pursuant to this Indenture or such Security as the fixed date on which the principal of such Security or such installment of principal or interest is, or such Additional Amounts are, due and payable.

Subsidiary” means any corporation or other entity (including, without limitation, partnerships, limited liability companies, joint ventures and associations) of which at least a majority of the outstanding Capital Stock having by the terms thereof (without regard to the occurrence or any contingency) ordinary voting power for the election of directors (or persons performing similar functions) of such corporation or other entity (irrespective of whether or not at the time the Capital Stock of any other class or classes of such corporation or other entity shall have or might have voting power by reason of the occurrence of any such contingency) is at the time directly or indirectly owned by the Issuer, or by one or more Subsidiaries of the Issuer, or by the Issuer and one or more other Subsidiaries of the Issuer.

Trust Indenture Act of 1939” (except as otherwise provided in Sections 8.01 and 8.02) means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 as in force at the date as of which this Indenture was originally executed.

Trustee” means the Person identified as “Trustee” in the first paragraph hereof and, subject to the provisions of Article 6, shall also include any successor trustee. “Trustee” shall also mean or include each Person who is then a trustee hereunder and if at any time there is more than one such Person, “Trustee” as used with respect to the Securities of any series shall mean the trustee with respect to the Securities of such series.

U.S. Government Obligation” means (a) a direct obligation of the United States of America, backed by its full faith and credit, or (b) an obligation of a Person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of the United States of America, the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the United States of America.

vice president”, when used with respect to the Issuer or the Trustee, means any vice president, whether or not designated by a number or a word or words added before or after the title of “vice president”.

 

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Yield to Maturity” means the yield to maturity on a series of securities, calculated at the time of issuance of such series, or, if applicable, at the most recent redetermination of interest on such series, and calculated in accordance with accepted financial practice.

ARTICLE 2

SECURITIES

Section 2.01 Forms Generally. The Securities of each series shall be substantially in such form (not inconsistent with this Indenture) as shall be established by or pursuant to one or more Board Resolutions (as set forth in a Board Resolution or, to the extent established pursuant to (rather than set forth in) a Board Resolution, an Officer’s Certificate detailing such establishment) or in one or more indentures supplemental hereto, in each case with such appropriate insertions, omissions, substitutions and other variations as are required or permitted by this Indenture and may have imprinted or otherwise reproduced thereon such legend or legends or endorsements, not inconsistent with the provisions of this Indenture, as may be required to comply with any law or with any rules or regulations pursuant thereto, or with any rules of any securities exchange or to conform to general usage, all as may be determined by the officers executing such Securities as evidenced by their execution of such Securities.

The definitive Securities shall be printed, lithographed or engraved on steel engraved borders or may be produced in any other manner, all as determined by the officers executing such Securities as evidenced by their execution of such Securities.

Section 2.02 Form of Trustees Certificate of Authentication. The Trustee’s certificate of authentication on all Securities shall be in substantially the following form:

This is one of the Securities of the series designated herein and referred to in the within-mentioned Indenture.

 

 

as Trustee
By:  

 

  Authorized Officer

Section 2.03 Amount Unlimited; Issuable in Series. The aggregate principal amount of Securities which may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited.

The Securities may be issued in one or more series. The terms of a series of Securities shall be established prior to the initial issuance thereof in or pursuant to one or more Board Resolutions, or, to the extent established pursuant to (rather than set forth in) a Board Resolution, in an Officer’s Certificate detailing such establishment and/or established in one or more indentures supplemental hereto. The terms of such series reflected in such Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate, or supplemental indenture may include the following or any additional or different terms:

 

  (a)

the designation of the Securities of the series (which may be part of a series of Securities previously issued);

 

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  (b)

any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of the series that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of the series pursuant to Section 2.08, 2.09, 2.11, 8.05 or 12.03);

 

  (c)

the date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the series is payable or the method used to determine those dates and the right, if any, to extend such date or dates;

 

  (d)

the rate or rates at which the Securities of the series shall bear interest, if any or the method by which such rate or rates shall be determined; the record date or dates for the determination of holders to whom interest is payable; the date or dates from which such interest shall accrue and on which such interest shall be payable, or the method by which such date or dates shall be determined; the right, if any, to extend the interest payment periods and the duration of that extension; and the basis upon which interest shall be calculated if other than that of a 360-day year of twelve 30-day months;

 

  (e)

the place or places where the principal of and any interest on Securities of the series shall be payable (if other than as provided in Section 3.02);

 

  (f)

the obligation or the right, if any, of the Issuer to redeem, purchase or repay Securities of the series pursuant to any mandatory redemption, sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a Holder thereof and the price or prices at which and the period or periods within which and any terms and conditions upon which Securities of the series shall be redeemed, purchased or repaid, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation or right;

 

  (g)

if other than denominations of $2,000 and any integral multiple of $1,000 in excess thereof, the denominations in which Securities of the series shall be issuable;

 

  (h)

if other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of Securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof;

 

  (i)

if other than Dollars, the currency, currencies or currency units in which the Securities of the series are denominated;

 

  (j)

if other than the currency in which the Securities of the series are denominated, the currency in which payment of the principal of or interest on the Securities of such series shall be payable;

 

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  (k)

if the principal of or interest on the Securities of the series is to be payable, at the election of the Issuer or a Holder thereof, in a currency other than that in which the Securities are denominated, the period or periods within which, and the terms and conditions upon which, such election may be made;

 

  (l)

if the amount of payments of principal of and interest on the Securities of the series may be determined by reference to an index based on a currency other than that in which the Securities of the series are denominated, or by reference to one or more currency exchange rates, securities or baskets of securities, commodity prices or indices, the manner in which such amounts shall be determined;

 

  (m)

the terms and conditions, if applicable, upon which conversion or exchange of the Securities into Common Stock will be effected, including the initial conversion or exchange price or rate and any adjustments thereto, the conversion or exchange period and other provisions in addition to or in lieu of those described herein;

 

  (n)

if the Securities of the series may be issued in exchange for surrendered Securities of another series, or for other securities of the Issuer, pursuant to the terms of such Securities or securities or of any agreement entered into by the Issuer, the ratio of the principal amount of the Securities of the series to be issued to the principal amount of the Securities or securities to be surrendered in exchange, and any other material terms of the exchange;

 

  (o)

if Sections 10.01(b) or 10.01(c) are inapplicable to Securities of such series;

 

  (p)

whether and under what circumstances the Issuer will pay Additional Amounts on the Securities and, if so, whether the Issuer will have the option to redeem such Securities rather than pay such additional amounts;

 

  (q)

if the Securities of such series are to be issuable in definitive form (whether upon original issue or upon exchange of a temporary Security of such series) only upon receipt of certain certificates or other documents or satisfaction of other conditions, then the form and terms of such certificates, documents or conditions;

 

  (r)

any trustees, authenticating or paying agents, transfer agents or registrars or any other agents with respect to the Securities of such series;

 

  (s)

any other events of default or covenants with respect to the Securities of such series in addition to or in lieu of those contained in this Indenture; and

 

  (t)

any other terms of the series.

 

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The Issuer may from time to time, without notice to or the consent of the holders of any series of Securities, create and issue further Securities of any such series ranking equally with the Securities of such series in all respects (or in all respects other than (1) the payment of interest accruing prior to the issue date of such further Securities or (2) the first payment of interest following the issue date of such further Securities). Such further Securities may be consolidated and form a single series with the Securities of such series and have the same terms as to status, redemption or otherwise as the Securities of such series.

Section 2.04 Authentication and Delivery of Securities. The Issuer may deliver Securities of any series executed by the Issuer to the Trustee for authentication together with the applicable documents referred to below in this Section, and the Trustee shall thereupon authenticate and deliver such Securities to or upon the order of the Issuer (contained in the Issuer Order referred to below in this Section) or pursuant to such procedures acceptable to the Trustee and to such recipients as may be specified from time to time by an Issuer Order. The maturity date, original issue date, interest rate and any other terms of the Securities of such series shall be determined by or pursuant to such Issuer Order and procedures. If provided for in such procedures, such Issuer Order may authorize authentication and delivery pursuant to oral instructions from the Issuer or its duly authorized agent, which instructions shall be promptly confirmed in writing. In authenticating such Securities and accepting the additional responsibilities under this Indenture in relation to such Securities, the Trustee shall be entitled to receive, and (subject to Section 6.01) shall be fully protected in relying upon:

 

  (a)

an Issuer Order requesting such authentication and setting forth delivery instructions if the Securities are not to be delivered to the Issuer;

 

  (b)

any Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate and/or executed supplemental indenture referred to in Sections 2.01 and 2.03 by or pursuant to which the forms and terms of the Securities were established;

 

  (c)

an Officer’s Certificate setting forth the form or forms and terms of the Securities stating that the form or forms and terms of the Securities have been established pursuant to Sections 2.01 and 2.03 and comply with this Indenture, and covering such other matters as the Trustee may reasonably request; and

 

  (d)

an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that:

 

  (i)

the form or forms and terms of such Securities have been established pursuant to Sections 2.01 and 2.03 and comply with this Indenture,

 

  (ii)

the authentication and delivery of such Securities by the Trustee are authorized under the provisions of this Indenture, and

 

  (iii)

such Securities when authenticated and delivered by the Trustee and issued by the Issuer in the manner and subject to any conditions specified in such Opinion of Counsel, will constitute valid and binding obligations of the Issuer,

 

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and covering such other matters as the Trustee may reasonably request.

The Trustee shall have the right to decline to authenticate and deliver any Securities under this Section if the Trustee, being advised by counsel, determines that such action may not lawfully be taken by the Issuer or if the Trustee in good faith by its board of directors or board of trustees, executive committee, or a trust committee of directors or trustees or Responsible Officers shall determine that such action would expose the Trustee to personal liability to existing Holders or would affect the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under the Securities, this Indenture or otherwise.

The Issuer shall execute and the Trustee shall, in accordance with this Section with respect to the Securities of a series, authenticate and deliver one or more Global Securities that (i) shall represent and shall be denominated in an amount equal to the aggregate principal amount of all of the Securities of such series issued and not yet cancelled, (ii) shall be registered in the name of the Depositary for such Global Security or Securities or the nominee of such Depositary, (iii) shall be delivered by the Trustee to such Depositary or pursuant to such Depositary’s instructions and (iv) shall bear a legend substantially to the following effect:

“UNLESS AND UNTIL IT IS EXCHANGED IN WHOLE OR IN PART FOR SECURITIES IN DEFINITIVE REGISTERED FORM, THIS SECURITY MAY NOT BE TRANSFERRED EXCEPT AS A WHOLE BY THE DEPOSITARY TO A NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY OR BY A NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY TO THE DEPOSITARY OR ANOTHER NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY OR BY THE DEPOSITARY OR ANY SUCH NOMINEE TO A SUCCESSOR DEPOSITARY OR A NOMINEE OF SUCH SUCCESSOR DEPOSITARY.”

Each Depositary designated pursuant to this Section must, at the time of its designation and at all times while it serves as Depositary, be a clearing agency registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended and any other applicable statute or regulation.

Section 2.05 Execution of Securities. The Securities shall be signed on behalf of the Issuer by the chairman of its Board of Directors, any vice chairman of its Board of Directors, its chief executive officer, its principal financial officer, its president, any vice president or its treasurer. Such signatures may be the manual or facsimile signatures of the present or any future such officers. Typographical and other minor errors or defects in any such reproduction of any such signature shall not affect the validity or enforceability of any Security that has been duly authenticated and delivered by the Trustee.

In case any officer of the Issuer who shall have signed any of the Securities shall cease to be such officer before the Security so signed shall be authenticated and delivered by the Trustee or disposed of by the Issuer, such Security nevertheless may be authenticated and delivered or disposed of as though the person who signed such Security had not ceased to be such officer of the Issuer; and any Security may be signed on behalf of the Issuer by such persons as, at the actual date of the execution of such Security, shall be the proper officers of the Issuer, although at the date of the execution and delivery of this Indenture any such person was not such an officer.

 

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Section 2.06 Certificate of Authentication. Only such Securities as shall bear thereon a certificate of authentication substantially in the form hereinbefore recited, executed by the Trustee by the manual signature of one of its authorized officers, shall be entitled to the benefits of this Indenture or be valid or obligatory for any purpose. The execution of such certificate by the Trustee upon any Security executed by the Issuer shall be conclusive evidence that the Security so authenticated has been duly authenticated and delivered hereunder and that the Holder is entitled to the benefits of this Indenture.

Section 2.07 Denomination and Date of Securities; Payments of Interest. The Securities of each series shall be issuable in denominations established as contemplated by Section 2.03 or, if not so established, in denominations of $2,000 and any integral multiple of $1,000 thereof. The Securities of each series shall be numbered, lettered or otherwise distinguished in such manner or in accordance with such plan as the officers of the Issuer executing the same may determine with the approval of the Trustee, as evidenced by the execution and authentication thereof. Unless otherwise indicated in a Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or supplemental indenture for a particular series, interest will be calculated on the basis of a 360-day year of twelve 30-day months.

Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication. The Securities of each series shall bear interest, if any, from the date, and such interest shall be payable on the dates, established as contemplated by Section 2.03.

The Person in whose name any Security of any series is registered at the close of business on any record date applicable to a particular series with respect to any Interest Payment Date for such series shall be entitled to receive the interest, if any, payable on such Interest Payment Date notwithstanding any transfer, exchange or conversion of such Security subsequent to the record date and prior to such Interest Payment Date, except if and to the extent the Issuer shall default in the payment of the interest due on such Interest Payment Date for such series, in which case such defaulted interest shall be paid to the Persons in whose names Outstanding Securities for such series are registered at the close of business on a subsequent record date (which shall be not less than five Business Days prior to the date of payment of such defaulted interest) established by notice given by or on behalf of the Issuer to the Holders of Securities not less than 15 days preceding such subsequent record date. The term “record date” as used with respect to any Interest Payment Date (except a date for payment of defaulted interest) for the Securities of any series shall mean the date specified as such in the terms of the Securities of such series established as contemplated by Section 2.03, or, if no such date is so specified, if such Interest Payment Date is the first day of a calendar month, the 15th day of the immediately preceding calendar month or, if such Interest Payment Date is the 15th day of a calendar month, the first day of such calendar month, whether or not such record date is a Business Day.

Section 2.08 Registration, Transfer and Exchange. The Issuer will keep at each office or agency to be maintained for the purpose as provided in Section 3.02 for each series of Securities a register or registers in which, subject to such reasonable regulations as it may prescribe, it will provide for the registration of Securities of such series and the registration of transfer of Securities of such series. Such register shall be in written form in the English language or in any other form capable of being converted into such form within a reasonable time. At all reasonable times such register or registers shall be open for inspection by the Trustee.

 

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Upon due presentation for registration of transfer of any Security of any series at any such office or agency to be maintained for the purpose as provided in Section 3.02, the Issuer shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver in the name of the transferee or transferees a new Security or Securities of the same series, maturity date, interest rate and original issue date in authorized denominations for a like aggregate principal amount.

At the option of the Holder thereof, Securities of any series (except a Global Security) may be exchanged for a Security or Securities of such series having authorized denominations and an equal aggregate principal amount, upon surrender of such Securities to be exchanged at the agency of the Issuer that shall be maintained for such purpose in accordance with Section 3.02 and upon payment, if the Issuer shall so require, of the charges hereinafter provided. Whenever any Securities are so surrendered for exchange, the Issuer shall execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, the Securities which the Holder making the exchange is entitled to receive. All Securities surrendered upon any exchange or transfer provided for in this Indenture shall be promptly cancelled and disposed of by the Trustee and the Trustee will deliver a certificate of disposition thereof to the Issuer.

All Securities presented for registration of transfer, exchange, redemption or payment shall (if so required by the Issuer or the Trustee) be duly endorsed by, or be accompanied by a written instrument or instruments of transfer in form satisfactory to the Issuer and the Trustee duly executed by, the Holder or his or her attorney duly authorized in writing.

The Issuer may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any stamp or other tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in connection with any exchange or registration of transfer of Securities. No service charge shall be made for any such transaction.

The Issuer shall not be required to exchange or register a transfer of (a) any Securities of any series for a period of 15 days immediately preceding the first delivery of notice of redemption of Securities of such series to be redeemed or (b) any Securities selected, called or being called for redemption, in whole or in part, except, in the case of any Security to be redeemed in part, the portion thereof not so to be redeemed.

Notwithstanding any other provision of this Section 2.08, unless and until it is exchanged in whole or in part for Securities in definitive registered form, a Global Security representing all or a portion of the Securities of a series may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depositary for such series to a nominee of such Depositary or by a nominee of such Depositary to such Depositary or another nominee of such Depositary or by such Depositary or any such nominee to a successor Depositary for such series or a nominee of such successor Depositary.

If at any time the Depositary for the Securities of a series notifies the Issuer that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for the Securities of such series or if at any time the Depositary for the Securities of a series shall no longer be eligible under Section 2.04, the Issuer shall appoint a successor Depositary with respect to the Securities of such series. If a successor Depositary for the Securities of such series is not appointed by the Issuer within 90

 

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days after the Issuer receives such notice or becomes aware of such ineligibility, the Issuer’s determination pursuant to Section 2.03 that the Securities of such series be represented by a Global Security shall no longer be effective and the Issuer will execute, and the Trustee, upon receipt of an Officer’s Certificate for the authentication and delivery of definitive Securities of such series, will authenticate and deliver, Securities of such series in definitive registered form, in any authorized denominations, in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security or Securities representing the Securities of such series, in exchange for such Global Security or Securities.

The Issuer may at any time and in its sole discretion determine that the Securities of any series issued in the form of one or more Global Securities shall no longer be represented by a Global Security or Securities. In such event the Issuer will execute, and the Trustee, upon receipt of an Officer’s Certificate for the authentication and delivery of definitive Securities of such series, will authenticate and deliver, Securities of such series in definitive registered form, in any authorized denominations, in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security or Securities representing such series, in exchange for such Global Security or Securities.

The Depositary for such Global Security may surrender such Global Security in exchange in whole or in part for Securities of the same series in definitive registered form in accordance with the two preceding paragraphs or on such other terms as are acceptable to the Issuer and such Depositary. Thereupon, the Issuer shall execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, without service charge,

 

  (i)

to the Person specified by such Depositary a new Security or Securities of the same series, of any authorized denominations as requested by such Person, in an aggregate principal amount equal to and in exchange for such Person’s beneficial interest in the Global Security; and

 

  (ii)

to such Depositary a new Global Security in a denomination equal to the difference, if any, between the principal amount of the surrendered Global Security and the aggregate principal amount of Securities authenticated and delivered pursuant to clause (i) above.

Upon the exchange of a Global Security for Securities in definitive registered form, in authorized denominations, such Global Security shall be cancelled by the Trustee. Securities in definitive registered form issued in exchange for a Global Security pursuant to this Section 2.08 shall be registered in such names and in such authorized denominations as the Depositary for such Global Security, pursuant to instructions from its direct or indirect participants or otherwise, shall instruct the Trustee. The Trustee shall deliver such Securities to or as directed by the Persons in whose names such Securities are so registered.

All Securities issued upon any transfer or exchange of Securities shall be valid obligations of the Issuer, evidencing the same debt, and entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture, as the Securities surrendered upon such transfer or exchange.

 

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Section 2.09 Mutilated, Defaced, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities. In case any temporary or definitive Security shall become mutilated or defaced or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Issuer in its discretion may execute, and upon the written request of any officer of the Issuer, the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver a new Security of the same series, maturity date, interest rate and original issue date, bearing a number or other distinguishing symbol not contemporaneously outstanding, in exchange and substitution for the mutilated or defaced Security, or in lieu of and substitution for the Security so destroyed, lost or stolen. In every case the applicant for a substitute Security shall furnish to the Issuer and to the Trustee and any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee such security or indemnity as may be required by them to indemnify and defend and to save each of them harmless and, in every case of destruction, loss or theft, evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of such Security and of the ownership thereof and in the case of mutilation or defacement shall surrender the Security to the Trustee.

Upon the issuance of any substitute Security, the Issuer may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee) connected therewith. In case any Security which has matured or is about to mature or has been called for redemption in full, or is being surrendered for conversion in full, shall become mutilated or defaced or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Issuer may, instead of issuing a substitute Security (with the Holder’s consent, in the case of convertible Securities), pay or authorize the payment of the same or convert, or authorize conversion of the same (without surrender thereof except in the case of a mutilated or defaced Security), if the applicant for such payment shall furnish to the Issuer and to the Trustee and any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee such security or indemnity as any of them may require to save each of them harmless, and, in every case of destruction, loss or theft, the applicant shall also furnish to the Issuer and the Trustee and any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of such Security and of the ownership thereof.

Every substitute Security of any series issued pursuant to the provisions of this Section by virtue of the fact that any such Security is destroyed, lost or stolen shall constitute an additional contractual obligation of the Issuer, whether or not the destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be at any time enforceable by anyone and shall be entitled to all the benefits of (but shall be subject to all the limitations of rights set forth in) this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of such series duly authenticated and delivered hereunder. All Securities shall be held and owned upon the express condition that, to the extent permitted by law, the foregoing provisions are exclusive with respect to the replacement or payment or conversion of mutilated, defaced or destroyed, lost or stolen Securities and shall preclude any and all other rights or remedies notwithstanding any law or statute existing or hereafter enacted to the contrary with respect to the replacement or payment of negotiable instruments or other securities without their surrender.

Section 2.10 Cancellation of Securities; Destruction Thereof. All Securities surrendered for exchange for Securities of the same series or for payment, redemption, registration of transfer or conversion or for credit against any payment in respect of a sinking or analogous fund, if surrendered to the Issuer or any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee, shall be delivered to the Trustee for cancellation or, if surrendered to the Trustee, shall be cancelled by it;

 

15


and no Securities shall be issued in lieu thereof except as expressly permitted by any of the provisions of this Indenture. The Trustee shall dispose of cancelled Securities held by it and deliver a certificate of disposition to the Issuer. If the Issuer shall acquire any of the Securities, such acquisition shall not operate as a redemption or satisfaction of the Debt represented by such Securities unless and until the same are delivered to the Trustee for cancellation.

Section 2.11 Temporary Securities. Pending the preparation of definitive Securities for any series, the Issuer may execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver temporary Securities for such series (printed, lithographed, typewritten or otherwise reproduced, in each case in form satisfactory to the Trustee). Temporary Securities of any series shall be issuable in any authorized denomination, and substantially in the form of the definitive Securities of such series but with such omissions, insertions and variations as may be appropriate for temporary Securities, all as may be determined by the Issuer with the concurrence of the Trustee as evidenced by the execution and authentication thereof. Temporary Securities may contain such reference to any provisions of this Indenture as may be appropriate. Every temporary Security shall be executed by the Issuer and be authenticated by the Trustee upon the same conditions and in substantially the same manner, and with like effect, as the definitive Securities. Without unreasonable delay the Issuer shall execute and shall furnish definitive Securities of such series and thereupon temporary Securities of such series may be surrendered in exchange therefor without charge at each office or agency to be maintained by the Issuer for that purpose pursuant to Section 3.02 and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver in exchange for such temporary Securities of such series an equal aggregate principal amount of definitive Securities of the same series having authorized denominations. Until so exchanged, the temporary Securities of any series shall be entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture as definitive Securities of such series, unless the benefits of the temporary Securities are limited pursuant to Section 2.03.

ARTICLE 3

COVENANTS OF THE ISSUER

Section 3.01 Payment of Principal and Interest. The Issuer covenants and agrees for the benefit of each series of Securities that it will duly and punctually pay or cause to be paid the principal of, and interest on, each of the Securities of such series (together with any additional amounts payable pursuant to the terms of such Securities) at the place or places, at the respective times and in the manner provided in such Securities and in this Indenture. The interest on Securities (together with any additional amounts payable pursuant to the terms of such Securities) shall be payable only to or upon the written order of the Holders thereof and at the option of the Issuer may be paid by mailing checks for such interest payable to or upon the written order of such Holders at their last addresses as they appear on the Security register of the Issuer.

Section 3.02 Offices for Payments, Etc. The Issuer will maintain (i) in                     , an agency where the Securities of each series may be presented for payment, an agency where the Securities of each series may be presented for exchange and conversion, if applicable, as provided in this Indenture and an agency where the Securities of each series may be presented for registration of transfer as in this Indenture provided and (ii) such further agencies in such places as may be determined for the Securities of such series pursuant to Section 2.03.

 

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The Issuer will maintain in                     , an agency where notices and demands to or upon the Issuer in respect of the Securities of any series or this Indenture may be served.

The Issuer will give to the Trustee written notice of the location of each such agency and of any change of location thereof. In case the Issuer shall fail to maintain any agency required by this Section to be located in                     , or shall fail to give such notice of the location or of any change in the location of any of the above agencies, presentations and demands may be made and notices may be served at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee.

The Issuer may from time to time designate one or more additional agencies where the Securities of a series may be presented for payment, where the Securities of that series may be presented for exchange or conversion, if applicable, as provided in this Indenture and pursuant to Section 2.03 and where the Securities of that series may be presented for registration of transfer as in this Indenture provided, and the Issuer may from time to time rescind any such designation, as the Issuer may deem desirable or expedient; provided, however, that no such designation or rescission shall in any manner relieve the Issuer of its obligation to maintain the agencies provided for in this Section. The Issuer will give to the Trustee prompt written notice of any such designation or rescission thereof.

Section 3.03 Appointment to Fill a Vacancy in Office of Trustee. The Issuer, whenever necessary to avoid or fill a vacancy in the office of Trustee, will appoint, in the manner provided in Section 6.10, a Trustee, so that there shall at all times be a Trustee with respect to each series of Securities hereunder.

Section 3.04 Paying Agents. Whenever the Issuer shall appoint a paying agent other than the Trustee with respect to the Securities of any series, it will cause such paying agent to execute and deliver to the Trustee an instrument in which such agent shall agree with the Trustee, subject to the provisions of this Section,

 

  (a)

that it will hold all sums received by it as such agent for the payment of the principal of or interest on the Securities of such series (whether such sums have been paid to it by the Issuer or by any other obligor on the Securities of such series) in trust for the benefit of the Holders of the Securities of such series or of the Trustee,

 

  (b)

that it will give the Trustee notice of any failure by the Issuer (or by any other obligor on the Securities of such series) to make any payment of the principal of or interest on the Securities of such series when the same shall be due and payable, and

 

  (c)

that at any time during the continuance of any such failure, upon the written request of the Trustee, it will forthwith pay to the Trustee all sums so held in trust by such paying agent.

The Issuer will, on or prior to each due date of the principal of or interest on the Securities of such series, deposit with the paying agent a sum sufficient to pay such principal or interest so becoming due, and (unless such paying agent is the Trustee) the Issuer will promptly notify the Trustee of any failure to take such action.

 

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If the Issuer shall act as its own paying agent with respect to the Securities of any series, it will, on or before each due date of the principal of or interest on the Securities of such series, set aside, segregate and hold in trust for the benefit of the Holders of the Securities of such series a sum sufficient to pay such principal or interest so becoming due. The Issuer will promptly notify the Trustee of any failure to take such action.

Anything in this Section to the contrary notwithstanding, but subject to Section 10.01, the Issuer may at any time, for the purpose of obtaining a satisfaction and discharge with respect to one or more or all series of Securities hereunder, or for any other reason, pay or cause to be paid to the Trustee all sums held in trust for any such series by the Issuer or any paying agent hereunder, as required by this Section, such sums to be held by the Trustee upon the trusts herein contained.

Anything in this Section to the contrary notwithstanding, the agreement to hold sums in trust as provided in this Section is subject to the provisions of Sections 10.03 and 10.04.

Section 3.05 Written Statement to Trustee. So long as any Securities are Outstanding hereunder, the Issuer will deliver to the Trustee, within 120 days after the end of each fiscal year of the Issuer ending after the date hereof, a written certificate covering the previous fiscal year, (which need not comply with Section 11.05), signed by its principal executive officer, principal financial officer or principal accounting officer, stating whether or not, to the best knowledge of such officer, the Issuer is in default in the performance and observance of any of the terms, provisions and conditions of this Indenture (without regard to any period of grace or requirement of notice provided hereunder) and, if the Issuer shall be in default, specifying all such defaults and the nature and status thereof of which they may have knowledge.

ARTICLE 4

SECURITYHOLDERS LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE ISSUER AND THE TRUSTEE

Section 4.01 Issuer to Furnish Trustee Information as to Names and Addresses of Securityholders. The Issuer covenants and agrees that it will furnish or cause to be furnished to the Trustee a list in such form as the Trustee may reasonably require of the names and addresses of the Holders of the Securities of each series pursuant to Section 312 of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939:

 

  (a)

semiannually and not more than 15 days after each record date for the payment of interest on such Securities, as hereinabove specified, as of such record date and on dates to be determined pursuant to Section 2.03 for non-interest bearing Securities in each year, and

 

  (b)

at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing, within 30 days after receipt by the Issuer of any such request as of a date not more than 15 days prior to the time such information is furnished, provided, that, if and so long as the Trustee shall be the Security registrar (the “Security Registrar”) for such series, such list shall not be required to be furnished.

Section 4.02 Reports by the Issuer. The Issuer covenants to comply with Section 314(a) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 insofar as it relates to information, documentation and other reports which the Issuer may be required to file with the Commission pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

 

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Section 4.03 Reports by the Trustee. Any Trustee’s report required under Section 313(a) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 shall be transmitted on or before                      in each year following the date hereof, so long as any Securities are Outstanding hereunder, and shall be dated as of a date convenient to the Trustee but no more than 60 nor less than 45 days prior thereto. The Trustee shall comply with Sections 313(b), 313(c) and 313(d) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.

Section 4.04 Preservation of Information; Communication with Securityholders. (a) The Trustee shall preserve, in as current a form as is reasonably practicable, all information as to the names and addresses of the Holders of Securities contained in the most recent list furnished to it as provided in Section 4.01 and as to the names and addresses of holders of Securities received by the Trustee in its capacity as Security Registrar (if acting in such capacity).

 

  (b)

The Trustee may destroy any list furnished to it as provided in Section 4.01 upon receipt of a new list so furnished.

 

  (c)

Securityholders may communicate as provided in Section 312(b) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 with other Securityholders with respect to their rights under this Indenture or under the Securities. The Issuer, the Trustee, the Security Registrar and any other Person shall have the protection of Section 312(c) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.

ARTICLE 5

REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT

Section 5.01 Event of Default Defined; Acceleration of Maturity; Waiver of Default. Event of Default”, with respect to Securities of any series wherever used herein, means any one of the following events which shall have occurred and be continuing (whatever the reason for such Event of Default and whether it shall be voluntary or involuntary or be effected by operation of law or pursuant to any judgment, decree or order of any court or any order, rule or regulation of any administrative or governmental body):

 

  (a)

default in the payment of any installment of interest upon any of the Securities of such series as and when the same shall become due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 30 days (or such other period as may be established for the Securities of such series as contemplated by Section 2.03); or

 

  (b)

default in the payment of all or any part of the principal on any of the Securities of such series as and when the same shall become due and payable either at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise (and, if established for the Securities of such series as contemplated by Section 2.03, the continuance of such default for a specified period); or

 

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  (c)

default in the performance, or breach, of any covenant or agreement of the Issuer in respect of the Securities of such series (other than a covenant or agreement in respect of the Securities of such series a default in the performance or breach of which is elsewhere in this Section specifically dealt with), and continuance of such default or breach for a period of 90 days after there has been given, by registered or certified mail, to the Issuer by the Trustee or to the Issuer and the Trustee by the Holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of such series, a written notice specifying such default or breach and requiring it to be remedied and stating that such notice is a “Notice of Default” hereunder; or

 

  (d)

a court having jurisdiction in the premises shall enter a decree or order for relief in respect of the Issuer in an involuntary case under any applicable bankruptcy, insolvency or other similar law now or hereafter in effect, or appointing a receiver, liquidator, assignee, custodian, trustee or sequestrator (or similar official) of the Issuer or for all or substantially all of its property and assets or ordering the winding up or liquidation of its affairs, and such decree or order shall remain unstayed and in effect for a period of 90 consecutive days; or

 

  (e)

the Issuer shall commence a voluntary case under any applicable bankruptcy, insolvency or other similar law now or hereafter in effect, or consent to the entry of an order for relief in an involuntary case under any such law, or consent to the appointment of or taking possession by a receiver, liquidator, assignee, custodian, trustee or sequestrator (or similar official) of the Issuer or for any substantial part of its property and assets, or make any general assignment for the benefit of creditors; or

 

  (f)

any other Event of Default provided for in such series of Securities.

If an Event of Default described in clauses (a), (b), (c) or (f) occurs and is continuing, then, and in each and every such case, unless the principal of all of the Securities of such series shall have already become due and payable, either the Trustee or the Holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series then Outstanding hereunder (each such series voting as a separate class) by notice in writing to the Issuer (and also to the Trustee if given by Securityholders), may declare the entire principal (or, if the Securities of such series are Original Issue Discount Securities, such portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of such series) of all Securities of such series and the interest accrued thereon, if any, to be due and payable immediately, and upon any such declaration the same shall become immediately due and payable. If an Event of Default described in clauses (d) or (e) occurs and is continuing, then and in each and every such case, the entire principal (or, if any Securities are Original Issue Discount Securities, such portion of the principal as may be specified in the terms thereof) of all the Securities then Outstanding and interest accrued thereon, if any, shall automatically become immediately due and payable.

 

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The foregoing provisions, however, are subject to the condition that if, at any time after the principal of the Securities of any series shall have been so declared due and payable, and before any judgment or decree for the payment of the moneys due shall have been obtained or entered as hereinafter provided, the Issuer shall pay or shall deposit with the Trustee a sum sufficient to pay all matured installments of interest upon all the Securities of such series and the principal of any and all Securities of such series which shall have become due otherwise than by acceleration (with interest upon such principal and, to the extent that payment of such interest is enforceable under applicable law, on overdue installments of interest, at the same rate as the rate of interest specified in the Securities of such series to the date of such payment or deposit) and such amount as shall be sufficient to cover reasonable compensation to the Trustee, its agents, attorneys and counsel, and all other expenses and liabilities incurred, and all advances made, by the Trustee except as a result of negligence or bad faith, and if any and all Events of Default under the Indenture with respect to such series, other than the non-payment of the principal of Securities of such series which shall have become due solely by such acceleration, shall have been cured, waived or otherwise remedied as provided herein, then and in every such case the Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of all the Securities of such series then Outstanding, by written notice to the Issuer and to the Trustee, may waive all defaults with respect to such series and rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences, but no such waiver or rescission and annulment shall extend to or shall affect any subsequent default or shall impair any right consequent thereon.

Unless otherwise indicated in the Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or supplemental indenture for a series of Original Issue Discount Securities, for all purposes under this Indenture, if a portion of the principal of any Original Issue Discount Securities shall have been accelerated and declared due and payable pursuant to the provisions hereof, then, from and after such declaration, unless such declaration has been rescinded and annulled, the principal amount of such Original Issue Discount Securities shall be deemed, for all purposes hereunder, to be such portion of the principal thereof as shall be due and payable as a result of such acceleration, and payment of such portion of the principal thereof as shall be due and payable as a result of such acceleration, together with interest, if any, thereon and all other amounts owing thereunder, shall constitute payment in full of such Original Issue Discount Securities.

Section 5.02 Collection of Debt by Trustee; Trustee May Prove Debt. The Issuer covenants that (a) in case default shall be made in the payment of any installment of interest on any of the Securities of any series when such interest shall have become due and payable, and such default shall have continued for a period of 30 days or (b) in case default shall be made in the payment of all or any part of the principal of any of the Securities of any series when the same shall have become due and payable, whether upon maturity of the Securities of such series or upon any redemption or by declaration or otherwise, then, upon demand of the Trustee, the Issuer will pay to the Trustee for the benefit of the Holders of the Securities of such series the whole amount that then shall have become due and payable on all Securities of such series for principal or interest, as the case may be (with interest to the date of such payment upon the overdue principal and, to the extent that payment of such interest is enforceable under applicable law, on overdue installments of interest at the same rate as the rate of interest or Yield to Maturity (in the case of Original Issue Discount Securities) specified in the Securities of such series); and, in addition thereto, such further amount as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of collection, including reasonable compensation to the Trustee and each predecessor

 

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trustee, their respective agents, attorneys and counsel, and any expenses and liabilities incurred, and all advances made, by the Trustee and each predecessor trustee except as a result of its negligence or bad faith.

In case the Issuer shall fail forthwith to pay such amounts upon such demand, the Trustee, in its own name and as trustee of an express trust, shall be entitled and empowered to institute any action or proceedings at law or in equity for the collection of the sums so due and unpaid, and may prosecute any such action or proceedings to judgment or final decree, and may enforce any such judgment or final decree against the Issuer or other obligor upon such Securities and collect in the manner provided by law out of the property of the Issuer or other obligor upon such Securities, wherever situated, the moneys adjudged or decreed to be payable.

In case there shall be pending proceedings relative to the Issuer or any other obligor upon the Securities under Title 11 of the United States Code or any other applicable Federal or state bankruptcy, insolvency or other similar law, or in case a receiver, assignee or trustee in bankruptcy or reorganization, liquidator, sequestrator or similar official shall have been appointed for or taken possession of the Issuer or its property or such other obligor or its property, or in case of any other comparable judicial proceedings relative to the Issuer or other obligor upon the Securities of any series, or to the creditors or property of the Issuer or such other obligor, the Trustee, irrespective of whether the principal of any Securities shall then be due and payable as therein expressed or by declaration or otherwise and irrespective of whether the Trustee shall have made any demand pursuant to the provisions of this Section, shall be entitled and empowered, by intervention in such proceedings or otherwise:

 

  (i)

to file and prove a claim or claims for the whole amount of principal and interest (or, if the Securities of any series are Original Issue Discount Securities, such portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of such series) owing and unpaid in respect of the Securities of any series, and to file such other papers or documents as may be necessary or advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee (including any claim for reasonable compensation to the Trustee and each predecessor trustee, and their respective agents, attorneys and counsel, and for reimbursement of all expenses and liabilities incurred, and all advances made, by the Trustee and each predecessor trustee, except as a result of negligence or bad faith) and of the Securityholders allowed in any judicial proceedings relative to the Issuer or other obligor upon the Securities of any series, or to the creditors or property of the Issuer or such other obligor,

 

  (ii)

unless prohibited by applicable law and regulations, to vote on behalf of the Holders of the Securities of any series in any election of a trustee or a standby trustee in arrangement, reorganization, liquidation or other bankruptcy or insolvency proceedings or person performing similar functions in comparable proceedings, and

 

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  (iii)

to collect and receive any moneys or other property payable or deliverable on any such claims, and to distribute all amounts received with respect to the claims of the Securityholders and of the Trustee on their behalf; and any trustee, receiver or liquidator, custodian or other similar official is hereby authorized by each of the Securityholders to make payments to the Trustee, and, in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of payments directly to the Securityholders, to pay to the Trustee such amounts as shall be sufficient to cover reasonable compensation to the Trustee, each predecessor trustee and their respective agents, attorneys and counsel, and all other expenses and liabilities incurred, and all advances made, by the Trustee and each predecessor trustee except as a result of negligence or bad faith and all other amounts due to the Trustee or any predecessor trustee pursuant to Section 6.06.

Nothing herein contained shall be deemed to authorize the Trustee to authorize or consent to or vote for or accept or adopt on behalf of any Securityholder any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities of any series or the rights of any Holder thereof, or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Securityholder in any such proceeding except, as aforesaid, to vote for the election of a trustee in bankruptcy or similar person.

All rights of action and of asserting claims under this Indenture, or under any of the Securities of any series, may be enforced by the Trustee without the possession of any of the Securities of such series or the production thereof on any trial or other proceedings relative thereto, and any such action or proceedings instituted by the Trustee shall be brought in its own name as trustee of an express trust, and any recovery of judgment, subject to the payment of the expenses, disbursements and compensation of the Trustee, each predecessor trustee and their respective agents and attorneys, shall be for the ratable benefit of the Holders of the Securities in respect of which such action was taken.

In any proceedings brought by the Trustee (and also any proceedings involving the interpretation of any provision of this Indenture to which the Trustee shall be a party), the Trustee shall be held to represent all the Holders of the Securities in respect to which such action was taken, and it shall not be necessary to make any Holders of such Securities parties to any such proceedings.

Section 5.03 Application of Proceeds. Any moneys collected by the Trustee pursuant to this Article in respect of any series shall be applied in the following order at the date or dates fixed by the Trustee and, in case of the distribution of such moneys on account of principal or interest, upon presentation of the several Securities in respect of which monies have been collected and stamping (or otherwise noting) thereon the payment, or issuing Securities of such series in reduced principal amounts in exchange for the presented Securities of like series if only partially paid, or upon surrender thereof if fully paid:

FIRST: To the payment of all amounts due to the Trustee or any predecessor trustee pursuant to Section 6.06;

 

23


SECOND: In case the principal of the Securities of such series in respect of which moneys have been collected shall not have become and be then due and payable, to the payment of interest on the Securities of such series in default in the order of the maturity of the installments of such interest, with interest (to the extent that such interest has been collected by the Trustee) upon the overdue installments of interest, to the extent permitted by applicable law, at the same rate as the rate of interest or Yield to Maturity (in the case of Original Issue Discount Securities) specified in such Securities, such payments to be made ratably to the Persons entitled thereto, without discrimination or preference;

THIRD: In case the principal of the Securities of such series in respect of which moneys have been collected shall have become and shall be then due and payable, to the payment of the whole amount then owing and unpaid upon all the Securities of such series for principal and interest, with interest upon the overdue principal, and (to the extent that such interest has been collected by the Trustee) upon overdue installments of interest, to the extent permitted by applicable law, at the same rate as the rate of interest or Yield to Maturity (in the case of Original Issue Discount Securities) specified in the Securities of such series; and in case such moneys shall be insufficient to pay in full the whole amount so due and unpaid upon the Securities of such series, then to the payment of such principal and interest, without preference or priority of principal over interest, or of interest over principal, or of any installment of interest over any other installment of interest, or of any Security of such series over any other Security of such series, ratably to the aggregate of such principal and accrued and unpaid interest; and

FOURTH: To the payment of the remainder, if any, to the Issuer or any other Person lawfully entitled thereto.

Section 5.04 Suits for Enforcement. In case an Event of Default has occurred, has not been waived and is continuing, the Trustee may in its discretion proceed to protect and enforce the rights vested in it by this Indenture by such appropriate judicial proceedings as the Trustee shall deem most effectual to protect and enforce any such rights, either at law or in equity or in bankruptcy or otherwise, whether for the specific enforcement of any covenant or agreement contained in this Indenture or in aid of the exercise of any power granted in this Indenture or to enforce any other legal or equitable right vested in the Trustee by this Indenture or by law.

Section 5.05 Restoration of Rights on Abandonment of Proceedings. In case the Trustee shall have proceeded to enforce any right under this Indenture and such proceedings shall have been discontinued or abandoned for any reason, or shall have been determined adversely to the Trustee, then and in every such case (subject to any determination in such proceeding) the Issuer and the Trustee shall be restored respectively to their former positions and rights hereunder, and all rights, remedies and powers of the Issuer, the Trustee and the Securityholders shall continue as though no such proceedings had been taken.

 

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Section 5.06 Limitations on Suits by Securityholders. No Holder of any Security of any series shall have any right by virtue, or by availing itself, of any provision of this Indenture to institute any action or proceeding at law or in equity or in bankruptcy or otherwise upon or under or with respect to this Indenture, or for the appointment of a trustee, receiver, liquidator, custodian or other similar official or for any other remedy hereunder, unless such Holder previously shall have given to the Trustee written notice of default and of the continuance thereof, as hereinbefore provided, and unless also the Holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series then Outstanding shall have made written request upon the Trustee to institute such action or proceedings in its own name as trustee hereunder and shall have offered to the Trustee such reasonable indemnity as it may require against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred therein or thereby and the Trustee for 60 days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity shall have failed to institute any such action or proceeding and no direction inconsistent with such written request shall have been given to the Trustee pursuant to Section 5.09; it being understood and intended, and being expressly covenanted by the Holder of every Security of a particular series with every other Holder of Securities of such series and the Trustee, that no one or more Holders of Securities of any series shall have any right in any manner whatever by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to affect, disturb or prejudice the rights of any other such Holder of Securities of such series, or to obtain or seek to obtain priority over or preference to any other such Holder of such series or to enforce any right under this Indenture, except in the manner herein provided and for the equal, ratable and common benefit of all Holders of Securities of the applicable series. For the protection and enforcement of the provisions of this Section, each and every Securityholder and the Trustee shall be entitled to such relief as can be given either at law or in equity.

Section 5.07 Unconditional Right of Securityholders to Institute Certain Suits. Notwithstanding any other provision in this Indenture and any provision of any Security, the right of any Holder of any Security to receive payment of the principal of and interest on such Security on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security in accordance with the terms hereof and thereof, or to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after such respective dates, shall not be impaired or affected without the consent of such Holder; it being understood and intended, and being expressly covenanted by the Holder of every Security of a particular series with every other Holder of Securities of such Series and the Trustee, that no one or more Holders of Securities of any series shall have any right in any manner whatever by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to affect, disturb or prejudice the rights of any other such Holder of Securities of such series, or to obtain or seek to obtain priority over or preference to any other such Holder of Securities of such series or to enforce any right under this Indenture, except in the manner herein provided and for the equal, ratable and common benefit of all Holders of Securities of the applicable series. For the protection and enforcement of the provisions of this Section, each and every Securityholder and the Trustee shall be entitled to such relief as can be given either at law or in equity.

Section 5.08 Powers and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver of Default. Except as provided in Section 5.06, no right or remedy herein conferred upon or reserved to the Trustee or to the Holders of Securities is intended to be exclusive of any other right or remedy, and every right and remedy shall, to the extent permitted by law, be cumulative and in addition to every other right and remedy given hereunder or now or hereafter existing at

 

25


law or in equity or otherwise. The assertion or employment of any right or remedy hereunder, or otherwise, shall not prevent the concurrent assertion or employment of any other appropriate right or remedy.

No delay or omission of the Trustee or of any Holder of Securities to exercise any right or power accruing upon any Event of Default occurring and continuing as aforesaid shall impair any such right or power or shall be construed to be a waiver of any such Event of Default or an acquiescence therein; and, subject to Section 5.06, every power and remedy given by this Indenture or by law to the Trustee or to the Holders of Securities may be exercised from time to time, and as often as shall be deemed expedient, by the Trustee or by the Holders of Securities.

Section 5.09 Control by Holders of Securities. The Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of each series affected (with each series voting as a separate class) at the time Outstanding shall have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee with respect to the Securities of such series by this Indenture; provided, that such direction shall not be otherwise than in accordance with law and the provisions of this Indenture and provided, further, that (subject to the provisions of Section 6.01) the Trustee shall have the right to decline to follow any such direction if the Trustee, being advised by counsel, shall determine that the action or proceeding so directed may not lawfully be taken or if the Trustee in good faith by its board of directors, the executive committee, or a trust committee of directors or Responsible Officers of the Trustee shall determine that the action or proceedings so directed would involve the Trustee in personal liability or if the Trustee in good faith shall so determine that the actions or forbearances specified in or pursuant to such direction would be unduly prejudicial to the interests of Holders of the Securities of all series so affected not joining in the giving of said direction, it being understood that (subject to Section 6.01) the Trustee shall have no duty to ascertain whether or not such actions or forbearances are unduly prejudicial to such Holders.

Nothing in this Indenture shall impair the right of the Trustee in its discretion to take any action deemed proper by the Trustee and which is not inconsistent with such direction or directions by Securityholders.

Section 5.10 Waiver of Past Defaults. The Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding, by notice to the Trustee, may on behalf of the Holders of all the Securities of such series waive any existing default in the performance of any of the covenants contained herein or established pursuant to Section 2.03 with respect to such series and its consequences, except an uncured default in the payment of the principal of, or interest on, any of the Securities of that series as and when the same shall become due by the terms of such Securities; and may rescind an acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from such acceleration. In the case of any such waiver, the Issuer, the Trustee and the Holders of the Securities of such series shall be restored to their former positions and rights hereunder, respectively, such default shall cease to exist and be deemed to have been cured and not to have occurred, and any Event of Default arising therefrom shall be deemed to have been cured, and not to have occurred for every purpose of this Indenture; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other default or Event of Default or impair any right consequent thereon.

 

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Section 5.11 Trustee to Give Notice of Default. The Trustee shall, within 90 days after the occurrence of a default with respect to the Securities of any series, give notice of all defaults with respect to that series known to the Trustee to all Holders of Securities of such series in the manner and to the extent provided in Sections 4.03 and 11.04, unless in each case such defaults shall have been cured before the giving of such notice (the term “defaults” for the purpose of this Section being hereby defined to mean any event or condition which is, or with notice or lapse of time or both would become, an Event of Default); provided, that, except in the case of default in the payment of the principal of or interest on any of the Securities of such series, or in the payment of any sinking fund installment on such series, the Trustee shall be protected in withholding such notice if and so long as the board of directors, the executive committee, or a trust committee of directors or trustees and/or Responsible Officers of the Trustee in good faith determines that the withholding of such notice is in the interests of the Securityholders of such series.

Section 5.12 Right of Court to Require Filing of Undertaking to Pay Costs. All parties to this Indenture agree, and each Holder of any Security by his or her acceptance thereof shall be deemed to have agreed, that any court may in its discretion require, in any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken, suffered or omitted by it as Trustee, the filing by any party litigant in such suit of an undertaking to pay the costs of such suit, and that such court may in its discretion assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees, against any party litigant in such suit, having due regard to the merits and good faith of the claims or defenses made by such party litigant; but the provisions of this Section shall not apply to any suit instituted by the Trustee, to any suit instituted by any Securityholder or group of Securityholders of any series holding in the aggregate more than 10% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series, or to any suit instituted by any Securityholder for the enforcement of the payment of the principal of or interest on any Security of such series, on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security or established pursuant to this Indenture.

ARTICLE 6

CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE

Section 6.01 Duties and Responsibilities of the Trustee; During Default; Prior to Default. With respect to the Holders of any series of Securities issued hereunder, the Trustee, prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a particular series and after the curing or waiving of all Events of Default which may have occurred with respect to such series, undertakes to perform such duties and only such duties as are specifically set forth in this Indenture. In case an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series has occurred (and has not been cured or waived), the Trustee shall exercise such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture, and use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise, as a prudent person would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of his or her own affairs.

No provision of this Indenture shall be construed to relieve the Trustee from liability for its own negligent action, its own negligent failure to act or its own willful misconduct.

 

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Section 6.02 Certain Rights of the Trustee. In furtherance of and subject to the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and subject to Section 6.01:

 

  (a)

in the absence of bad faith on the part of the Trustee, the Trustee may conclusively rely, as to the truth of the statements and the correctness of the opinions expressed therein, upon any statements, certificates or opinions furnished to the Trustee and conforming to the requirements of this Indenture; but, in the case of any such statements, certificates or opinions which by any provision hereof are specifically required to be furnished to the Trustee, the Trustee shall be under a duty to examine the same to determine whether or not they conform to the requirements of this Indenture;

 

  (b)

the Trustee shall not be liable for any error of judgment made in good faith by a Responsible Officer or Responsible Officers of the Trustee, unless it shall be proved that the Trustee was negligent in ascertaining the pertinent facts;

 

  (c)

the Trustee shall not be liable with respect to any action taken or omitted to be taken by it in good faith in accordance with the direction of the Holders pursuant to Section 5.09 relating to the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred upon the Trustee, under this Indenture;

 

  (d)

none of the provisions contained in this Indenture shall require the Trustee to expend or risk its own funds or otherwise incur personal financial liability in the performance of any of its duties or in the exercise of any of its rights or powers if there shall be reasonable ground for believing that the repayment of such funds or adequate indemnity against such liability is not reasonably assured to it;

 

  (e)

the Trustee may rely and shall be protected in acting or refraining from acting upon any resolution, Officer’s Certificate or any other certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, bond, debenture, note, security or other paper or document believed by it to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper party or parties;

 

  (f)

any request, direction, order or demand of the Issuer mentioned herein shall be sufficiently evidenced by an Officer’s Certificate (unless other evidence in respect thereof be herein specifically prescribed); and any resolution of the Board of Directors may be evidenced to the Trustee by a copy thereof certified by the secretary or an assistant secretary of the Issuer;

 

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  (g)

the Trustee may consult with counsel and any advice or Opinion of Counsel shall be full and complete authorization and protection in respect of any action taken, suffered or omitted to be taken by it hereunder in good faith and in accordance with such advice or Opinion of Counsel;

 

  (h)

the Trustee shall be under no obligation to exercise any of the trusts or powers vested in it by this Indenture at the request, order or direction of any of the Securityholders pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture, unless such Securityholders shall have offered to the Trustee reasonable security or indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities that might be incurred therein or thereby;

 

  (i)

the Trustee shall not be liable for any action taken or omitted by it in good faith and believed by it to be authorized or within the discretion, rights or powers conferred upon it by this Indenture;

 

  (j)

prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default hereunder and after the curing or waiving of all Events of Default, the Trustee shall not be bound to make any investigation into the facts or matters stated in any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, approval, appraisal, bond, debenture, note, security, or other paper or document unless requested in writing so to do by the Holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of all series affected then Outstanding; provided, that, if the payment within a reasonable time to the Trustee of the costs, expenses or liabilities likely to be incurred by it in the making of such investigation is, in the opinion of the Trustee, not reasonably assured to the Trustee by the security afforded to it by the terms of this Indenture, the Trustee may require reasonable indemnity against such expenses or liabilities as a condition to proceeding; the reasonable expenses of every such investigation shall be paid by the Issuer or, if paid by the Trustee or any predecessor trustee, shall be repaid by the Issuer upon demand; and

 

  (k)

the Trustee may execute any of the trusts or powers hereunder or perform any duties hereunder either directly or by or through agents or attorneys not regularly in its employ and the Trustee shall not be responsible for any misconduct or negligence on the part of any such agent or attorney appointed with due care by it hereunder.

Section 6.03 Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals, Disposition of Securities or Application of Proceeds Thereof. The recitals contained herein and in the Securities, except the Trustee’s certificates of authentication, shall be taken as the statements of the Issuer, and the Trustee assumes no responsibility for the correctness of the same. The Trustee makes no representation as to the validity or sufficiency of this Indenture or of the Securities. The Trustee shall not be accountable for the use or application by the Issuer of any of the Securities or of the proceeds thereof.

 

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Section 6.04 Trustee and Agents May Hold Securities; Collections, Etc. The Trustee or any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee, in its individual or any other capacity, may become the owner or pledgee of Securities with the same rights it would have if it were not the Trustee or such agent and may otherwise deal with the Issuer and receive, collect, hold and retain collections from the Issuer with the same rights it would have if it were not the Trustee or such agent.

Section 6.05 Moneys Held by Trustee. Subject to the provisions of Section 10.04 hereof, all moneys received by the Trustee shall, until used or applied as herein provided, be held in trust for the purposes for which they were received, but need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by mandatory provisions of law. Neither the Trustee nor any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee shall be under any liability for interest on any moneys received by it hereunder.

Section 6.06 Compensation and Indemnification of Trustee and Its Prior Claim. The Issuer covenants and agrees to pay to the Trustee from time to time, and the Trustee shall be entitled to, such reasonable compensation (which shall not be limited by any provision of law in regard to the compensation of a trustee of an express trust) as the Issuer and the Trustee may from time to time agree in writing and, except as otherwise expressly provided herein, the Issuer covenants and agrees to pay or reimburse the Trustee and each predecessor trustee upon its request for all reasonable expenses, disbursements and advances incurred or made by or on behalf of it in accordance with any of the provisions of this Indenture (including the reasonable compensation and the expenses and disbursements of its counsel and of all agents and other persons not regularly in its employ) except any such expense, disbursement or advance as may arise from its negligence or bad faith. The Issuer also covenants to indemnify the Trustee and each predecessor trustee for, and to hold it harmless against, any loss, liability or expense incurred without negligence or bad faith on its part, arising out of or in connection with the acceptance or administration of this Indenture or the trusts hereunder and its duties hereunder, including the costs and expenses of defending itself against or investigating any claim of liability in the premises. The obligations of the Issuer under this Section to compensate and indemnify the Trustee and each predecessor trustee and to pay or reimburse the Trustee and each predecessor trustee for expenses, disbursements and advances shall constitute additional indebtedness hereunder and shall survive the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture. Such additional indebtedness shall be a senior claim to that of the Securities upon all property and funds held or collected by the Trustee as such, except funds held in trust for the benefit of the Holders of particular Securities, and the Securities are hereby subordinated to such senior claim.

Section 6.07 Right of Trustee to Rely on Officers Certificate, Etc. Subject to Sections 6.01 and 6.02, whenever in the administration of the trusts of this Indenture the Trustee shall deem it necessary or desirable that a matter be proved or established prior to taking or suffering or omitting any action hereunder, such matter (unless other evidence in respect thereof be herein specifically prescribed) may, in the absence of negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee, be deemed to be conclusively proved and established by an Officer’s Certificate delivered to the Trustee, and such certificate, in the absence of negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee, shall be full warrant to the Trustee for any action taken, suffered or omitted by it under the provisions of this Indenture upon the faith thereof.

 

30


Section 6.08 Disqualification; Conflicting Interests. If the Trustee has or shall acquire any “conflicting interest” within the meaning of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act, the Trustee and the Issuer shall in all respects comply with the provisions of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act.

Section 6.09 Persons Eligible for Appointment as Trustee. The Trustee for each series of Securities hereunder shall at all times be a corporation having a combined capital and surplus of at least $50,000,000 and shall be eligible in accordance with the provisions of Section 310(a) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939. If such corporation publishes reports of condition at least annually, pursuant to law or to the requirements of a Federal, State or District of Columbia supervising or examining authority, then, for the purposes of this Section, the combined capital and surplus of such corporation shall be deemed to be its combined capital and surplus as set forth in its most recent report of condition so published.

Section 6.10 Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor Trustee. (a) The Trustee, or any trustee or trustees hereafter appointed, may at any time resign with respect to one or more or all series of Securities by giving written notice of resignation to the Issuer and by delivering notice of such resignation to the Holders of then Outstanding Securities of each series affected at their addresses as they shall appear on the Security register. Upon receiving such notice of resignation, the Issuer shall promptly appoint a successor trustee or trustees with respect to the applicable series by written instrument in duplicate, executed by authority of the Board of Directors, one copy of which instrument shall be delivered to the resigning Trustee and one copy to the successor trustee or trustees. If no successor trustee shall have been so appointed with respect to any series and have accepted appointment within 30 days after the delivery of such notice of resignation, the resigning trustee may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor trustee, or any Securityholder who has been a bona fide Holder of a Security or Securities of the applicable series for at least six months may, on behalf of himself or herself and all others similarly situated, petition any such court for the appointment of a successor trustee. Such court may thereupon, after such notice, if any, as it may deem proper and prescribe, appoint a successor trustee.

 

  (b)

In case at any time any of the following shall occur:

 

  (i)

the Trustee shall fail to comply with the provisions of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 with respect to any series of Securities after written request therefor by the Issuer or by any Securityholder who has been a bona fide Holder of a Security or Securities of such series for at least six months; or

 

  (ii)

the Trustee shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of Section 310(a) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and shall fail to resign after written request therefor by the Issuer or by any Securityholder; or

 

  (iii)

the Trustee shall become incapable of acting with respect to any series of Securities, or shall be adjudged bankrupt or insolvent, or a receiver or liquidator of the Trustee or of its property shall be

 

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  appointed, or any public officer shall take charge or control of the Trustee or of its property or affairs for the purpose of rehabilitation, conservation or liquidation;

then, in any such case, (A) the Issuer may remove the Trustee with respect to the applicable series of Securities and appoint a successor trustee for such series by written instrument, in duplicate, executed by order of the Board of Directors, one copy of which instrument shall be delivered to the Trustee so removed and one copy to the successor trustee, or, (B) subject to Section 315(e) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, any Securityholder who has been a bona fide Holder of a Security or Securities of such series for at least six months may on behalf of itself and all others similarly situated, petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the removal of the Trustee and the appointment of a successor trustee with respect to such series. Such court may thereupon, after such notice, if any, as it may deem proper and prescribe, remove the Trustee and appoint a successor trustee.

 

  (c)

The Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of each series at the time Outstanding may at any time remove the Trustee with respect to Securities of such series and, with the consent of the Issuer, appoint a successor trustee with respect to the Securities of such series by delivering to the Trustee so removed, to the successor trustee so appointed and to the Issuer the evidence provided for in Section 7.01 of the action in that regard taken by the Securityholders.

 

  (d)

Any resignation or removal of the Trustee with respect to any series and any appointment of a successor trustee with respect to such series pursuant to any of the provisions of this Section 6.10 shall become effective upon acceptance of appointment by the successor trustee as provided in Section 6.11.

Section 6.11 Acceptance of Appointment by Successor Trustee. Any successor trustee appointed as provided in Section 6.10 shall execute and deliver to the Issuer and to its predecessor trustee an instrument accepting such appointment hereunder, and thereupon the resignation or removal of the predecessor trustee with respect to all or any applicable series shall become effective and such successor trustee, without any further act, deed or conveyance, shall become vested with all rights, powers, duties and obligations with respect to such series of its predecessor hereunder, with like effect as if originally named as trustee for such series hereunder; but, nevertheless, on the written request of the Issuer or of the successor trustee, upon payment of its charges then unpaid, the trustee ceasing to act shall, subject to Section 10.04, pay over to the successor trustee all moneys at the time held by it hereunder and shall execute and deliver an instrument transferring to such successor trustee all such rights, powers, duties and obligations. Upon request of any such successor trustee, the Issuer shall execute any and all instruments in writing for more fully and certainly vesting in and confirming to such successor trustee all such rights and powers. Any trustee ceasing to act shall, nevertheless, retain a prior claim upon all property or funds held or collected by such trustee to secure any amounts then due it pursuant to the provisions of Section 6.06.

 

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If a successor trustee is appointed with respect to the Securities of one or more (but not all) series, the Issuer, the predecessor trustee and each successor trustee with respect to the Securities of any applicable series shall execute and deliver an indenture supplemental hereto which shall contain such provisions as shall be deemed necessary or desirable to confirm that all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the predecessor trustee with respect to the Securities of any series as to which the predecessor trustee is not retiring shall continue to be vested in the predecessor trustee, and shall add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one trustee, it being understood that nothing herein or in such supplemental indenture shall constitute such trustees co-trustees of the same trust and that each such trustee shall be trustee of a trust or trusts under separate indentures.

No successor trustee with respect to any series of Securities shall accept appointment as provided in this Section 6.11 unless at the time of such acceptance such successor trustee shall be qualified under the provisions of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and eligible under the provisions of Section 310(a) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.

Upon acceptance of appointment by any successor trustee as provided in this Section 6.11, the Issuer shall deliver notice thereof to the Holders of Securities of each series affected, by delivering such notice to such Holders at their addresses as they shall appear on the Security register. If the acceptance of appointment is substantially contemporaneous with the resignation, then the notice called for by the preceding sentence may be combined with the notice called for by Section 6.10. If the Issuer fails to deliver such notice within ten days after acceptance of appointment by the successor trustee, the successor trustee shall cause such notice to be given at the expense of the Issuer.

Section 6.12 Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business of Trustee. Any corporation into which the Trustee may be merged or converted or with which it may be consolidated, or any corporation resulting from any merger, conversion or consolidation to which the Trustee shall be a party, or any corporation succeeding to the corporate trust business of the Trustee, shall be the successor of the Trustee hereunder; provided, that such corporation shall be qualified under the provisions of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and eligible under the provisions of Section 310(a) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, without the execution or filing of any paper or any further act on the part of any of the parties hereto, anything herein to the contrary notwithstanding.

In case, at the time such successor to the Trustee shall succeed to the trusts created by this Indenture, any of the Securities of any series shall have been authenticated but not delivered, any such successor to the Trustee may adopt the certificate of authentication of any predecessor trustee and deliver such Securities so authenticated; and, in case at that time any of the Securities of any series shall not have been authenticated, any successor to the Trustee may authenticate such Securities either in the name of any predecessor hereunder or in the name of the successor trustee; and in all such cases such certificate shall have the full force which it is anywhere in the Securities of such series or in this Indenture provided that the certificate of the Trustee shall have; provided, that the right to adopt the certificate of authentication of any predecessor trustee or to authenticate Securities of any series in the name of any predecessor trustee shall apply only to its successor or successors by merger, conversion or consolidation.

 

33


Section 6.13 Preferential Collection of Claims Against the Issuer. The Trustee shall comply with Section 311(a) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, excluding any creditor relationship described in Section 311(b) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939. A Trustee who has resigned or been removed shall be subject to Section 311(a) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 to the extent included therein.

ARTICLE 7

CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS

Section 7.01 Evidence of Action Taken by Securityholders. Any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action provided by this Indenture to be given or taken by a specified percentage in principal amount of the Securityholders of any or all series may be embodied in and evidenced by one or more instruments of substantially similar tenor signed by such specified percentage of Securityholders in person or by agent duly appointed in writing; and, except as herein otherwise expressly provided, such action shall become effective when such instrument or instruments are delivered to the Trustee. Proof of execution of any instrument or of a writing appointing any such agent shall be sufficient for any purpose of this Indenture and (subject to Sections 6.01 and 6.02) conclusive in favor of the Trustee and the Issuer, if made in the manner provided in this Article.

Section 7.02 Proof of Execution of Instruments and of Holding of Securities. Subject to Sections 6.01 and 6.02, the execution of any instrument by a Holder or his agent or proxy may be proved in accordance with such reasonable rules and regulations as may be prescribed by the Trustee or in such manner as shall be satisfactory to the Trustee. The holding of Securities shall be proved by the Security register or by a certificate of the registrar thereof. The Issuer may set a record date for purposes of determining the identity of Holders of any series entitled to vote or consent to any action referred to in Section 7.01, which record date may be set at any time or from time to time by notice to the Trustee, for any date or dates (in the case of any adjournment or reconsideration) not more than 60 days nor less than five days prior to the proposed date of such vote or consent, and thereafter, notwithstanding any other provisions hereof, only Holders of such series of record on such record date shall be entitled to so vote or give such consent or revoke such vote or consent. Notice of such record date may be given before or after any request for any action referred to in Section 7.01 is made by the Issuer.

Section 7.03 Holders to Be Treated as Owners. The Issuer, the Trustee and any agent of the Issuer or of the Trustee may deem and treat the Person in whose name any Security shall be registered upon the Security register for such series as the absolute owner of such Security (whether or not such Security shall be overdue and notwithstanding any notation of ownership or other writing thereon) for the purpose of receiving payment of or on account of the principal of, and, subject to the provisions of this Indenture, interest on, such Security and for all other purposes; and neither the Issuer nor the Trustee nor any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee shall be affected by any notice to the contrary. All such payments so made to any such Person, or upon his or her order, shall be valid, and, to the extent of the sum or sums so paid, effectual to satisfy and discharge the liability for moneys payable.

 

34


Section 7.04 Securities Owned by Issuer Deemed Not Outstanding. In determining whether the Holders of the requisite aggregate principal amount of Outstanding Securities of any or all series have concurred in any direction, consent or waiver under this Indenture, Securities that are owned by the Issuer or any other obligor on the Securities with respect to which such determination is being made or by any Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with the Issuer or any other obligor on the Securities with respect to which such determination is being made shall be disregarded and deemed not to be Outstanding for the purpose of any such determination, except that, for the purpose of determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in relying on any such direction, consent or waiver, only Securities which the Trustee knows are so owned shall be so disregarded. Securities so owned which have been pledged in good faith may be regarded as Outstanding if the pledgee establishes to the satisfaction of the Trustee the pledgee’s right so to act with respect to such Securities and that the pledgee is not the Issuer or any other obligor upon the Securities or any Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with the Issuer or any other obligor on the Securities. In case of a dispute as to such right, the advice of counsel shall be full protection in respect of any decision made by the Trustee in accordance with such advice.

Section 7.05 Right of Revocation of Action Taken. At any time prior to (but not after) the evidencing to the Trustee, as provided in Section 7.01, of the taking of any action by the Holders of the percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any or all series, as the case may be, specified in this Indenture in connection with such action, any Holder of a Security the serial number of which is shown by the evidence to be included among the serial numbers of the Securities the Holders of which have consented to such action may, by filing written notice at the Corporate Trust Office and upon proof of holding as provided in this Article, revoke such action so far as concerns such Security. Except as aforesaid, any such action taken by the Holder of any Security shall be conclusive and binding upon such Holder and upon all future Holders and owners of such Security and of any Securities issued in exchange or substitution therefor or on registration of transfer thereof, irrespective of whether or not any notation in regard thereto is made upon any such Security. Any action taken by the Holders of the percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any or all series, as the case may be, specified in this Indenture in connection with such action shall be conclusively binding upon the Issuer, the Trustee and the Holders of all the Securities affected by such action.

ARTICLE 8

SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES

Section 8.01 Supplemental Indentures Without Consent of Securityholders. The Issuer, when authorized by a resolution of its Board of Directors, and the Trustee may from time to time and at any time, without the consent of any of the Securityholders, enter into an indenture or indentures supplemental hereto in form satisfactory to the Trustee for one or more of the following purposes:

 

  (a)

to convey, transfer, assign, mortgage or pledge to the Trustee as security for the Securities of one or more series any property or assets;

 

  (b)

to evidence the succession of another Person to the Issuer, or successive successions, and the assumption by such successor of the covenants, agreements and obligations of the Issuer pursuant to, or to otherwise comply with, Article 9;

 

35


  (c)

to comply with the requirements of the Commission in order to effect or maintain the qualification of this Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended;

 

  (d)

to add to the covenants of the Issuer such further covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions as its Board of Directors and the Trustee shall consider to be for the protection of the Holders of Securities, and to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and continuance, of a default in any such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an Event of Default permitting the enforcement of all or any of the several remedies provided in this Indenture as herein set forth; provided, that in respect of any such additional covenant, restriction, condition or provision such supplemental indenture may provide for a particular period of grace after default (which period may be shorter or longer than that allowed in the case of other defaults) or may provide for an immediate enforcement upon such an Event of Default or may limit the remedies available to the Trustee upon such an Event of Default or may limit the right of the Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series to waive such an Event of Default;

 

  (e)

to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency, or to conform this Indenture or any supplemental indenture to the description of the Securities set forth in any prospectus, prospectus supplement or offering memorandum related to such series of Securities;

 

  (f)

to provide for or add guarantors for the Securities of one or more series;

 

  (g)

to establish the form or terms of Securities of any series as permitted by Sections 2.01 and 2.03;

 

  (h)

to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment hereunder by a successor trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more series and to add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one trustee, pursuant to the requirements of Section 6.11;

 

  (i)

to add to, change or eliminate any of the provisions of this Indenture in respect of one or more series of Securities; provided that any such addition, change or elimination shall (A) not (i) apply to any Security of any series created prior to the execution of such supplemental indenture and entitled to the benefit of such provision nor (ii) modify the rights of the Holder of any such Security with respect to such provision or (B) shall become effective only when there is no Security described in clause (A)(i) Outstanding;

 

36


  (j)

to make any change to the Securities of any series so long as no Securities of such series are Outstanding; and

 

  (k)

to make any other change that does not adversely affect the interests of the Holders of the Securities in any material respect.

The Trustee shall join with the Issuer in the execution of any such supplemental indenture, to make any further appropriate agreements and stipulations which may be therein contained and to accept the conveyance, transfer, assignment, mortgage or pledge of any property thereunder, but the Trustee shall not be obligated to enter into any such supplemental indenture which affects the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture or otherwise.

Any supplemental indenture authorized by the provisions of this Section may be executed without the consent of the Holders of any of the Securities at the time Outstanding, notwithstanding any of the provisions of Section 8.02.

Section 8.02 Supplemental Indentures With Consent of Securityholders. With the consent (evidenced as provided in Article 7) of the Holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities at the time Outstanding of one or more series affected by such supplemental indenture (voting as separate series), the Issuer, when authorized by a resolution of the Board of Directors, and the Trustee may, from time to time and at any time, enter into an indenture or indentures supplemental hereto for the purpose of adding any provisions to or changing in any manner or eliminating any of the provisions of this Indenture or of any supplemental indenture or of modifying in any manner the rights of the Holders of the Securities of each such consenting series; provided, that no such supplemental indenture shall, without the consent of the Holder of each Security so affected, (a) extend the final maturity of any Security, or reduce the principal amount thereof, or reduce the rate or extend the time of payment of interest thereon, or reduce any amount payable on redemption thereof, or make the principal thereof (including any amount in respect of original issue discount) or interest thereon payable in any currency other than that provided in the Securities or in accordance with the terms thereof, or reduce the amount of the principal of an Original Issue Discount Security that would be due and payable upon an acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 5.01 or the amount thereof provable in bankruptcy pursuant to Section 5.02, or (b) waive a continuing default in the payment of principal of any Security or interest thereon, other than any such default in payment that resulted solely from such acceleration, or change a provision related to the waiver of past defaults or impair the right of any Securityholder to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after the Stated Maturity or the date of redemption or conversion of any Security or, if the Securities provide therefor, any right of repayment at the option of the Securityholder, or (c) modify any of the provisions of this section except to increase any required percentage or to provide that certain other provisions cannot be modified or waived without the consent of the Holder of each Security so affected, or (d) make any change that adversely affects the right to convert or exchange any Security into or for Common Stock or other securities, cash or other property in accordance with the terms of such Security or (e)

 

37


reduce the aforesaid percentage of Securities of any series, the consent of the Holders of which is required for any such supplemental indenture or the consent of Holders of which is required for any modification, amendment or waiver of compliance with certain provisions of this Indenture or certain defaults hereunder and their consequences provided for in this Indenture.

A supplemental indenture which changes or eliminates any covenant, Event of Default or other provision of this Indenture (1) that has been expressly included solely for the benefit of one or more particular series of Securities, if any, or (2) which modifies the rights of Holders of Securities of one or more series with respect to any covenant, Event of Default or provision, shall be deemed not to affect the rights under this Indenture of the Holders of Securities of any other series with respect to which such covenant, Event of Default or other provision has not been included or so modified.

Upon the request of the Issuer, accompanied by a Board Resolution authorizing the execution of any such supplemental indenture, and upon the filing with the Trustee of evidence of the consent of Securityholders as aforesaid and other documents, if any, required by Section 7.01, the Trustee shall join with the Issuer in the execution of such supplemental indenture unless such supplemental indenture affects the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture or otherwise, in which case the Trustee may in its discretion, but shall not be obligated to, enter into such supplemental indenture.

It shall not be necessary for the consent of the Securityholders under this Section to approve the particular form of any proposed supplemental indenture, but it shall be sufficient if such consent shall approve the substance thereof.

Promptly after the execution by the Issuer and the Trustee of any supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions of this Section, the Trustee shall give a notice thereof to the Holders of then Outstanding Securities of each series affected thereby, by delivering a notice thereof, and in each case such notice shall set forth in general terms the substance of such supplemental indenture. Any failure of the Trustee to deliver such notice, or any defect therein, shall not, however, in any way impair or affect the validity of any such supplemental indenture.

Section 8.03 Effect of Supplemental Indenture. Upon the execution of any supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions hereof, this Indenture shall be and be deemed to be modified and amended in accordance therewith and the respective rights, limitations of rights, obligations, duties and immunities under this Indenture of the Trustee, the Issuer and the Holders of Securities of each series affected thereby shall thereafter be determined, exercised and enforced hereunder subject in all respects to such modifications and amendments, and all the terms and conditions of any such supplemental indenture shall be and be deemed to be part of the terms and conditions of this Indenture for any and all purposes.

Section 8.04 Documents to Be Given to Trustee. The Trustee, subject to the provisions of Sections 6.01 and 6.02, may receive an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel as conclusive evidence that any supplemental indenture executed pursuant to this Article 8 complies with the applicable provisions of this Indenture.

 

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Section 8.05 Notation on Securities in Respect of Supplemental Indentures. Securities of any series authenticated and delivered after the execution of any supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions of this Article may bear a notation in form approved by the Trustee for such series as to any matter provided for by such supplemental indenture or as to any action taken by Securityholders. If the Issuer or the Trustee shall so determine, new Securities of any series so modified as to conform, in the opinion of the Trustee and the Board of Directors, to any modification of this Indenture contained in any such supplemental indenture may be prepared by the Issuer, authenticated by the Trustee and delivered in exchange for the Securities of such series then Outstanding.

ARTICLE 9

CONSOLIDATION, MERGER, SALE OR CONVEYANCE

Section 9.01 Issuer May Consolidate, Etc., on Certain Terms. The Issuer shall not consolidate with or merge into any other Person (in a transaction in which the Issuer is not the surviving corporation) or convey, transfer or lease its properties and assets substantially as an entirety to any Person, unless (a) the Person formed by such consolidation or into which the Issuer is merged or the Person which acquires by conveyance or transfer, or which leases, the properties and assets of the Issuer substantially as an entirety (i) shall be a corporation, limited liability company, partnership or trust, (ii) shall be organized and validly existing under the laws of the United States of America, any State thereof or the District of Columbia and (iii) shall expressly assume, by an indenture supplemental hereto, executed and delivered to the Trustee, in form satisfactory to the Trustee, the due and punctual payment of the principal, interest on and any Additional Amounts with respect to all the Securities and the performance or observance of every covenant of this Indenture on the part of the Issuer to be performed, by supplemental indenture satisfactory in form to the Trustee, executed and delivered to the Trustee, by the Person formed by such consolidation or into which the Issuer shall have been merged or by the Person which shall have acquired the Issuer’s assets; (b) immediately after giving effect to such transaction, no Event of Default, and no event which, after notice or lapse of time or both, would become an Event of Default, shall have happened and be continuing; and (c) the Issuer has delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that such consolidation, merger, conveyance, transfer or lease and, if a supplemental indenture is required in connection with such transaction, such supplemental indenture comply with this Article and that all conditions precedent herein provided for relating to such transaction have been complied with.

The restrictions in this Section 9.01 shall not apply to (i) the merger or consolidation of the Issuer with one of its affiliates, if the Board of Directors determines in good faith that the purpose of such transaction is principally to change the Issuer’s State of incorporation or convert the Issuer’s form of organization to another form, or (ii) the merger of the Issuer with or into a single direct or indirect wholly owned Subsidiary.

Section 9.02 Successor Issuer Substituted. Upon any consolidation of the Issuer with, or merger of the Issuer into, any other Person or any conveyance, transfer or lease of the properties and assets of the Issuer substantially as an entirety in accordance with Section 9.01, the successor Person formed by such consolidation or into which the Issuer is merged or to which such conveyance, transfer or lease is made shall succeed to, and be substituted for, and

 

39


may exercise every right and power of, the Issuer under this Indenture with the same effect as if such successor Person had been named as the Issuer herein, and thereafter, except in the case of a lease, the predecessor Person shall be relieved of all obligations and covenants under this Indenture and the Securities.

In case of any such consolidation, merger, sale, lease or conveyance, such changes in phraseology and form (but not in substance) may be made in the Securities thereafter to be issued as may be appropriate.

ARTICLE 10

SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE OF INDENTURE; DEFEASANCE; UNCLAIMED MONEYS

Section 10.01 Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture; Defeasance. (a) If at any time

 

  (i)

the Issuer shall have paid or caused to be paid the principal of and interest on and any Additional Amounts with respect to all the Securities of any series Outstanding hereunder (other than Securities of such series which have been destroyed, lost or stolen and which have been replaced or paid as provided in Section 2.09) as and when the same shall have become due and payable, or

 

  (ii)

the Issuer shall have delivered to the Trustee for cancellation all Securities of any series theretofore authenticated (other than any Securities of such series which shall have been destroyed, lost or stolen and which shall have been replaced or paid as provided in Section 2.09); or

 

  (iii)

in the case of any series of Securities the exact amount (including the currency of payment) of principal of and interest and Additional Amounts due on which on the dates referred to in clause (B) below can be determined at the time of making the deposit referred to in such clause,

 

  (A)

all the Securities of such series not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation shall have become due and payable, or are by their terms to become due and payable within one year or are to be called for redemption within one year in accordance with their terms under arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for the giving of notice of redemption, and

 

  (B)

the Issuer shall have irrevocably deposited or caused to be deposited with the Trustee as trust funds the entire amount (i) in the case of any series of Securities the payments on which may only be made in Dollars, in Dollars (other than moneys repaid by the Trustee or any paying agent to the Issuer in accordance with Section 10.04) and/or U.S.

 

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  Government Obligations maturing as to principal and interest in such amounts and at such times as will insure the availability of cash in such currency, or (ii) in the case of any series of Securities the payments on which may only be made in a Foreign Currency, in such Foreign Currency (other than moneys repaid by the Trustee or any paying agent to the Issuer in accordance with Section 10.04) and/or Foreign Government Obligations maturing as to principal and interest in such amounts and at such times as will insure the availability of cash in such currency, in each case sufficient to pay on any subsequent Interest Payment Date all interest due on such Interest Payment Date on the Securities of such series and to pay at maturity or upon redemption all Securities of such series (in each case other than any Securities of such series which shall have been destroyed, lost or stolen and which shall have been replaced or paid as provided in Section 2.09) not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, including principal, interest and Additional Amounts due or to become due to such date of maturity, as the case may be,

and if, in a case described in Section 10.01(a)(iii)(B), the Issuer shall also pay or cause to be paid all other sums payable hereunder by the Issuer, including amounts due the Trustee pursuant to Section 6.06, with respect to Securities of such series, then this Indenture shall cease to be of further effect with respect to Securities of such series (except as to (1) rights of registration of transfer, conversion and exchange of Securities of such series and the Issuer’s right of optional redemption, (2) substitution of mutilated, defaced, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities, (3) rights of Holders of Securities to receive, solely from the trust fund described in Section 10.01(a)(iii)(B), payments of principal thereof and interest thereon, upon the original stated due dates therefor (but not upon acceleration) and remaining rights of the Holders to receive, solely from the trust fund described in Section 10.01(a)(iii)(B), sinking fund payments, if any, (4) the rights (including the Trustee’s rights under Section 10.05) and immunities of the Trustee hereunder and the Trustee’s obligations under Sections 10.02 and 10.04 and (5) the obligations of the Issuer under Section 3.02), and the Trustee, on demand of the Issuer accompanied by an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel which complies with Section 11.05 and at the cost and expense of the Issuer, shall execute proper instruments acknowledging such satisfaction of and discharging this Indenture with respect to such series. The Issuer agrees to reimburse the Trustee for any costs or expenses thereafter reasonably and properly incurred and to compensate the Trustee for any services thereafter reasonably and properly rendered by the Trustee in connection with this Indenture or the Securities of such series.

 

  (b)

The following subsection shall apply to the Securities of each series unless specifically otherwise provided in a Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or indenture supplemental hereto pursuant to Section 2.03. In addition to the right to discharge of the Indenture pursuant to subsection (a) above, the Issuer, at its option and at any time, by written notice by an officer delivered to the Trustee, may elect to have all of its obligations

 

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  with respect to all Outstanding Securities of a series discharged (“Legal Defeasance”), such discharge to be effective on the date that the conditions set forth in clauses (i) through (iv) and (vi) of Section 10.01(d) are satisfied, and thereafter the Issuer shall be deemed to have paid and discharged the entire Debt on all the Securities of such series, and satisfied all its other obligations under such Securities and this Indenture insofar as such Securities are concerned and this Indenture shall cease to be of further effect with respect to Securities of such series (except as to (1) rights of registration of transfer, conversion and exchange of Securities of such series, (2) substitution of apparently mutilated, defaced, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities, (3) rights of Holders of Securities to receive, solely from the trust fund described in Section 10.01(d)(i), payments of principal thereof, interest thereon and any Additional Amounts, upon the original Stated Maturities therefor (but not upon acceleration) and remaining rights of the Holders to receive, solely from the trust fund described in Section 10.01(d)(i), sinking fund payments, if any, (4) the rights (including the Trustee’s rights under Section 10.05) and immunities of the Trustee hereunder and the Trustee’s obligations with respect to the Securities of such series under Sections 10.02 and 10.04 and (5) the obligations of the Issuer under Section 3.02).

 

  (c)

The following subsection shall apply to the Securities of each series unless specifically otherwise provided in a Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or indenture supplemental hereto provided pursuant to Section 2.03. In addition to the right to discharge of the Indenture pursuant to subsection (a) and to Legal Defeasance pursuant to subsection (b), above, the Issuer, at its option and at any time, by written notice executed by an officer delivered to the Trustee, may elect to have its obligations under any covenant contained in this Indenture or in the Board Resolution or supplemental indenture relating to such series pursuant to Section 2.03 discharged with respect to all Outstanding Securities of a series, this Indenture and any indentures supplemental to this Indenture with respect to such series (“Covenant Defeasance”), such discharge to be effective on the date the conditions set forth in clauses (i) through (iii) and (v) through (vi) of Section 10.01(d) are satisfied, and such Securities shall thereafter be deemed to be not “Outstanding” for the purposes of any direction, waiver, consent or declaration of Securityholders (and any consequences thereof) in connection with such covenants, but shall continue to be “Outstanding” for all other purposes under this Indenture. For this purpose, such Covenant Defeasance means that, with respect to the Outstanding Securities of a series, the Issuer may omit to comply with and shall have no liability in respect of any term, condition or limitation set forth in any such covenant, whether directly or indirectly, by reason of any reference elsewhere herein to any such covenant or by reason of reference in any such covenant to any other provision herein or in any other document and such omission to comply shall not constitute an Event of Default under Section 5.01(c) or otherwise, but except as specified in this

 

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  Section 10.01(c), the remainder of the Issuer’s obligations under the Securities of such series, this Indenture, and any indentures supplemental to this Indenture with respect to such series shall be unaffected thereby.

 

  (d)

The following shall be the conditions to the application of Legal Defeasance (to the extent set forth in subsection (b)), or Covenant Defeasance (to the extent set forth in subsection (c)) to the Securities of the applicable series:

 

  (i)

the Issuer irrevocably deposits or causes to be deposited in trust with the Trustee or, at the option of the Trustee, with a trustee satisfactory to the Trustee and the Company under the terms of an irrevocable trust agreement in form and substance satisfactory to the Trustee, (i) in the case of any series of Securities the payments on which may only be made in Dollars, Dollars (other than moneys repaid by the Trustee or any paying agent to the Issuer in accordance with Section 10.04) and/or U.S. Government Obligations maturing as to principal and interest in such amounts and at such times as will insure the availability of cash in such currency, or (ii) in the case of any series of Securities the payments on which may only be made in a Foreign Currency, such Foreign Currency (other than moneys repaid by the Trustee or any paying agent to the Issuer in accordance with Section 10.04) and/or Foreign Government Obligations maturing as to principal and interest in such amounts and at such times as will insure the availability of cash in such currency, in each case sufficient to pay on any subsequent Interest Payment Date all interest due on such Interest Payment Date on the Securities of such series and to pay at maturity or upon redemption all Securities of such series (in each case other than any Securities of such series which shall have been destroyed, lost or stolen and which shall have been replaced or paid as provided in Section 2.09) not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, including principal, interest and Additional Amounts due or to become due to such date of maturity, as the case may be;

 

  (ii)

the Issuer delivers to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate stating that all conditions precedent specified herein relating to Legal Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance, as the case may be, have been complied with, and an Opinion of Counsel to the same effect;

 

  (iii)

no Event of Default under subsection (a), (b), (d) or (e) of Section 5.01 shall have occurred and be continuing, and no event which with notice or lapse of time or both would become such an Event of Default shall have occurred and be continuing, on the date of such deposit;

 

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  (iv)

in the event of an election for Legal Defeasance under subsection (b), the Issuer shall have delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel stating that (A) the Issuer has received from, or there has been published by, the Internal Revenue Service a ruling or (B) since the date of this instrument, there has been a change in the applicable Federal income tax law, in either case (A) or (B) to the effect that, and based thereon such opinion shall confirm that, the Holders of such Securities will not recognize gain or loss for Federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit, defeasance and discharge to be effected with respect to such Securities and will be subject to Federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would be the case if such deposit, defeasance and discharge were not to occur;

 

  (v)

in the event of an election for Covenant Defeasance under subsection (c), the Issuer shall have delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that the Holders of such Securities will not recognize gain or loss for Federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit and Covenant Defeasance to be effected with respect to such Securities and will be subject to Federal income tax on the same amount, in the same manner and at the same times as would be the case if such deposit and Covenant Defeasance were not to occur; and

 

  (vi)

notwithstanding any other provisions of this subsection (d), such defeasance shall be effected in compliance with any additional or substitute terms, conditions or limitations that may be imposed on the Issuer pursuant to Section 2.03.

After such irrevocable deposit made pursuant to this Section 10.01(d) and satisfaction of the other applicable conditions set forth in this subsection (d), the Trustee upon request shall execute proper instruments acknowledging the discharge of the Issuer’s obligations pursuant to this Section 10.01.

Section 10.02 Application by Trustee of Funds Deposited for Payment of Securities. Subject to Section 10.04, all moneys deposited with the Trustee (or other trustee) pursuant to Section 10.01 shall be held in trust and applied by it to the payment, either directly or through any paying agent (including the Issuer acting as its own paying agent), to the Holders of the particular Securities of such series for the payment or redemption of which such moneys have been deposited with the Trustee, of all sums due and to become due thereon for principal and interest; but such money need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law.

Section 10.03 Repayment of Moneys Held by Paying Agent. In connection with the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture with respect to Securities of any series, all moneys then held by any paying agent under the provisions of this Indenture with respect to such series of Securities shall, upon demand of the Issuer, be repaid to it or paid to the Trustee and thereupon such paying agent shall be released from all further liability with respect to such moneys.

 

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Section 10.04 Return of Moneys Held by Trustee and Paying Agent Unclaimed for Two Years. Any moneys deposited with or paid to the Trustee or any paying agent for the payment of the principal of, interest on or additional amounts in respect of any Security of any series and not applied but remaining unclaimed for two years after the date upon which such principal, interest or additional amount shall have become due and payable, shall be repaid to the Issuer by the Trustee for such series or such paying agent, and the Holder of the Securities of such series shall thereafter look only to the Issuer for any payment which such Holder may be entitled to collect, and all liability of the Trustee or any paying agent with respect to such moneys shall thereupon cease.

Section 10.05 Indemnity for U.S. Government Obligations and Foreign Government Obligations. The Issuer shall pay and indemnify the Trustee against any tax, fee or other charge imposed on or assessed against the U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations deposited pursuant to Section 10.01 or the principal or interest received in respect of such obligations.

ARTICLE 11

MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

Section 11.01 No Recourse. No recourse under or upon any obligation, covenant or agreement of this Indenture, or of any Security, or for any claim based thereon or otherwise in respect thereof, shall be had against any incorporator, stockholder, officer or director, past, present or future as such, of the Issuer or of any predecessor or successor corporation, either directly or through the Issuer or any such predecessor or successor corporation, whether by virtue of any constitution, statute or rule of law, or by the enforcement of any assessment or penalty or otherwise; it being expressly understood that this Indenture and the obligations issued hereunder are solely corporate obligations, and that no such personal liability whatever shall attach to, or is or shall be incurred by, the incorporators, stockholders, officers or directors as such, of the Issuer or of any predecessor or successor corporation, or any of them, because of the creation of the indebtedness hereby authorized, or under or by reason of the obligations, covenants or agreements contained in this Indenture or in any of the Securities or implied therefrom; and that any and all such personal liability of every name and nature, either at common law or in equity or by constitution or statute, of, and any and all such rights and claims against, every such incorporator, stockholder, officer or director as such, because of the creation of the indebtedness hereby authorized, or under or by reason of the obligations, covenants or agreements contained in this Indenture or in any of the Securities or implied therefrom, are hereby expressly waived and released as a condition of, and as a consideration for, the execution of this Indenture and the issuance of such Securities.

Section 11.02 Provisions of Indenture for the Sole Benefit of Parties and Holders of Securities. Nothing in this Indenture or in the Securities, expressed or implied, shall give or be construed to give to any person, firm or corporation, other than the parties hereto and their successors and the Holders of the Securities any legal or equitable right, remedy or claim under this Indenture or under any covenant or provision herein contained, all such covenants and provisions being for the sole benefit of the parties hereto and their successors and of the Holders of the Securities.

 

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Section 11.03 Successors and Assigns of Issuer Bound by Indenture. All the covenants, stipulations, promises and agreements contained in this Indenture by or on behalf of the Issuer shall bind its successors and assigns, whether so expressed or not.

Section 11.04 Notices and Demands on Issuer, Trustee and Holders of Securities. Any notice or demand which by any provision of this Indenture is required or permitted to be given or served by the Trustee or by the Holders of Securities to or on the Issuer may be delivered, given or served by being deposited postage prepaid, first-class mail (except as otherwise specifically provided herein) addressed (until another address of the Issuer is filed by the Issuer with the Trustee) to Trevi Therapeutics, Inc., 195 Church Street, 14th Floor, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, Attn: Chief Financial Officer. Any notice, direction, request or demand by the Issuer or any Holder of Securities to or upon the Trustee shall be deemed to have been sufficiently given or made, for all purposes, if given or made at                     ,                     , Attn:                     .

Where this Indenture provides for notice to Holders of Securities, such notice shall be sufficiently given (unless otherwise herein expressly provided) if in writing and mailed, first-class postage prepaid, to each Holder entitled thereto, at his, her or its last address as it appears in the Security register. In case, by reason of the suspension of or irregularities in regular mail service, it shall be impracticable to mail notice of any event to Holders of Securities when said notice is required to be given pursuant to any provision of this Indenture or of the Securities, then any manner of giving such notice as shall be satisfactory to the Trustee shall be deemed to be a sufficient giving of such notice.

In case, by reason of the suspension of or irregularities in regular mail service, it shall be impracticable to mail notice to the Issuer when such notice is required to be given pursuant to any provision of this Indenture, then any manner of giving such notice as shall be satisfactory to the Trustee shall be deemed to be a sufficient giving of such notice.

Where this Indenture provides for notice of any event to a Holder of a Global Security, such notice shall be sufficiently given if given to the Depositary for such Security (or its designee), pursuant to the Applicable Procedures of the Depositary, not later than the latest date, if any, and not earlier than the earliest date, if any, prescribed for the giving of such notice.

Neither the failure to give notice, nor any defect in any notice so given, to any particular Holder of a Security shall affect the sufficiency of such notice with respect to other Holders of Securities given as provided above.

Where this Indenture provides for notice in any manner, such notice may be waived in writing by the Person entitled to receive such notice either before or after the event, and such waiver shall be the equivalent of such notice. Waivers of notice by Holders shall be filed with the Trustee, but such filing shall not be a condition precedent to the validity of any action taken in reliance upon such waiver.

Section 11.05 Officers Certificates and Opinions of Counsel; Statements to Be Contained Therein. Upon any application or demand by the Issuer to the Trustee to take any

 

46


action under any of the provisions of this Indenture, the Issuer shall furnish to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate stating that all conditions precedent provided for in this Indenture relating to the proposed action have been complied with and an Opinion of Counsel stating that in the opinion of such counsel all such conditions precedent have been complied with, except that in the case of any such application or demand as to which the furnishing of such documents is specifically required by any provision of this Indenture relating to such particular application or demand, no additional certificate or opinion need be furnished.

Each certificate or opinion provided for in this Indenture and delivered to the Trustee with respect to compliance with a condition or covenant provided for in this Indenture shall include (a) a statement that the person making such certificate or opinion has read such covenant or condition, (b) a brief statement as to the nature and scope of the examination or investigation upon which the statements or opinions contained in such certificate or opinion are based, (c) a statement that, in the opinion of such person, he or she has made such examination or investigation as is necessary to enable him or her to express an informed opinion as to whether or not such covenant or condition has been complied with and (d) a statement as to whether or not, in the opinion of such person, such condition or covenant has been complied with.

Any certificate, statement or opinion of an officer of the Issuer may be based, insofar as it relates to legal matters, upon a certificate or opinion of or representations by counsel, unless such officer knows that the certificate or opinion or representations with respect to the matters upon which his or her certificate, statement or opinion may be based as aforesaid are erroneous, or in the exercise of reasonable care should know that the same are erroneous. Any certificate, statement or opinion of counsel may be based, insofar as it relates to factual matters, information with respect to which is in the possession of the Issuer, upon the certificate, statement or opinion of or representations by an officer or officers of the Issuer, unless such counsel knows that the certificate, statement or opinion or representations with respect to the matters upon which his or her certificate, statement or opinion may be based as aforesaid are erroneous, or in the exercise of reasonable care should know that the same are erroneous.

Any certificate, statement or opinion of an officer of the Issuer or of counsel may be based, insofar as it relates to accounting matters, upon a certificate or opinion of or representations by an accountant or firm of accountants in the employ of the Issuer, unless such officer or counsel, as the case may be, knows that the certificate or opinion or representations with respect to the accounting matters upon which his or her certificate, statement or opinion may be based as aforesaid are erroneous, or in the exercise of reasonable care should know that the same are erroneous.

Any certificate or opinion of any independent firm of public accountants filed with and directed to the Trustee shall contain a statement that such firm is independent.

Section 11.06 Payments Due on Saturdays, Sundays and Holidays. If the date of maturity of interest on or principal of the Securities of any series or the date fixed for redemption or repayment of any such Security, or the last day on which a Holder has the right to convert any Security, shall not be a Business Day, then payment of interest or principal, or any conversion, need not be made on such date, but may be made on the next succeeding Business Day with the same force and effect as if made on the date of maturity or the date fixed for redemption or on such last day for conversion, and no interest shall accrue for the period after such date.

 

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Section 11.07 Conflict of Any Provision of Indenture With Trust Indenture Act of 1939. If and to the extent that any provision of this Indenture limits, qualifies or conflicts with another provision included in this Indenture by operation of Sections 310 to 317, inclusive, of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, such incorporated provision shall control.

Section 11.08 New York Law to Govern. This Indenture and each Security shall be deemed to be a contract under the laws of the State of New York, and for all purposes shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of such State without regard to any principle of conflict of laws that would require or permit the application of the laws of any other jurisdiction, except as may otherwise be required by mandatory provisions of law.

Section 11.09 Counterparts. This Indenture may be executed in any number of counterparts, each of which shall be an original; but such counterparts shall together constitute but one and the same instrument.

Section 11.10 Effect of Headings. The Article and Section headings herein and the Table of Contents are for convenience only and shall not affect the construction hereof.

Section 11.11 Actions by Successor. Any act or proceeding by any provision of this Indenture authorized or required to be done or performed by any board of directors or its equivalent, committee or officer of the Issuer shall and may be done and performed with like force and effect by the corresponding board, committee or officer of any corporation that shall at the time be the lawful successor of the Issuer.

Section 11.12 Severability. In case any one or more of the provisions contained in this Indenture or in the Securities of any series shall for any reason be held to be invalid, illegal or unenforceable in any respect, such invalidity, illegality or unenforceability shall not affect any other provisions of this Indenture or of such Securities, but this Indenture and such Securities shall be construed as if such invalid or illegal or unenforceable provision had never been contained herein or therein.

ARTICLE 12

REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUNDS

Section 12.01 Applicability of Article. The provisions of this Article shall be applicable to the Securities of any series which are redeemable before their maturity or to any sinking fund for the retirement of Securities of a series, except as otherwise specified, as contemplated by Section 2.03 for Securities of such series.

Section 12.02 Notice of Redemption; Partial Redemptions. Notice of redemption to the Holders of Securities of any series to be redeemed as a whole or in part at the option of the Issuer shall be given by providing notice of such redemption at least 30 days and not more than 60 days prior to the date fixed for redemption to such Holders of Securities of such series at their last addresses as they shall appear upon the Security register. Any notice which is given in the manner herein provided shall be conclusively presumed to have been duly given, whether or not

 

48


the Holder receives the notice. Failure to give notice or any defect in the notice to the Holder of any Security of a series designated for redemption as a whole or in part shall not affect the validity of the proceedings for the redemption of any other Security of such series.

The notice of redemption to each such Holder shall specify the principal amount of each Security of such series held by such Holder to be redeemed, the date fixed for redemption, the redemption price, the place or places of payment, that payment will be made upon presentation and surrender of such Securities, that such redemption is pursuant to the mandatory or optional sinking fund, or both, if such be the case, that interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption will be paid as specified in such notice and that on and after said date interest thereon or on the portions thereof to be redeemed will cease to accrue and shall also specify, if applicable, the conversion price then in effect and the date on which the right to convert such Securities or the portions thereof to be redeemed will expire. In case any Security of a series is to be redeemed in part only, the notice of redemption shall state the portion of the principal amount thereof to be redeemed and shall state that on and after the date fixed for redemption, upon surrender of such Security, a new Security or Securities of such series in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion thereof will be issued.

The notice of redemption of Securities of any series to be redeemed at the option of the Issuer shall be given by the Issuer or, at the Issuer’s request, by the Trustee in the name and at the expense of the Issuer.

On or before the redemption date specified in the notice of redemption given as provided in this Section, the Issuer will deposit with the Trustee or with one or more paying agents (or, if the Issuer is acting as its own paying agent, set aside, segregate and hold in trust as provided in Section 3.04) an amount of money sufficient to redeem on the redemption date all the Securities of such series so called for redemption (other than those Securities theretofore surrendered for conversion into Common Stock in accordance with their terms) at the appropriate redemption price, together with accrued interest to the date fixed for redemption. If any Security called for redemption is converted pursuant hereto and in accordance with the terms thereof, any money deposited with the Trustee or any paying agent or so segregated and held in trust for the redemption of such Security shall be paid to the Issuer upon the Issuer’s request, or, if then held by the Issuer, shall be discharged from such trust. The Issuer will deliver to the Trustee at least 10 days prior to the date the notice required to be delivered to the Holders is to be sent (unless a shorter time period shall be acceptable to the Trustee) an Officer’s Certificate (which need not comply with Section 11.05) stating the aggregate principal amount of Securities to be redeemed. In case of a redemption at the election of the Issuer prior to the expiration of any restriction on such redemption, the Issuer shall deliver to the Trustee, prior to the giving of any notice of redemption to Holders pursuant to this Section, an Officer’s Certificate stating that such restriction has been complied with.

If less than all the Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the Trustee shall select, in such manner as it shall deem appropriate and fair, Securities of such series to be redeemed in whole or in part. Securities may be redeemed in part in multiples equal to the minimum authorized denomination for Securities of such series or any multiple thereof. The Trustee shall promptly notify the Issuer in writing of the Securities of such series selected for redemption and, in the case of any Securities of such series selected for partial redemption, the principal amount

 

49


thereof to be redeemed. For all purposes of this Indenture, unless the context otherwise requires, all provisions relating to the redemption of Securities of any series shall relate, in the case of any Security redeemed or to be redeemed only in part, to the portion of the principal amount of such Security which has been or is to be redeemed. If any Security selected for partial redemption is surrendered for conversion after such selection, the converted portion of such Security shall be deemed (so far as may be possible) to be the portion selected for redemption.

Section 12.03 Payment of Securities Called for Redemption. If notice of redemption has been given as above provided, the Securities or portions of Securities specified in such notice shall become due and payable on the date and at the place stated in such notice at the applicable redemption price, together with interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption, and on and after said date (unless the Issuer shall default in the payment of such Securities at the redemption price, together with interest accrued to said date) interest on the Securities or portions of Securities so called for redemption shall cease to accrue, and such Securities shall cease from and after the date fixed for redemption to be convertible into Common Stock (to the extent otherwise convertible in accordance with their terms), if applicable, and cease to be entitled to any benefit or security under this Indenture, and except as provided in the paragraph below, the Holders thereof shall have no right in respect of such Securities except the right to receive the redemption price thereof and unpaid interest to the date fixed for redemption. On presentation and surrender of such Securities at a place of payment specified in said notice, said Securities or the specified portions thereof shall be paid and redeemed by the Issuer at the applicable redemption price, together with interest accrued thereon to the date fixed for redemption; provided, that payment of interest becoming due on or prior to the date fixed for redemption shall be payable to the Holders of such Securities registered as such on the relevant record date subject to the terms and provisions of Sections 2.03 and 2.07 hereof.

If any Security called for redemption shall not be so paid upon surrender thereof for redemption, the principal shall, until paid or duly provided for, bear interest from the date fixed for redemption at the rate of interest or Yield to Maturity (in the case of an Original Issue Discount Security) borne by such Security and, if applicable, such Security shall remain convertible into Common Stock until the principal of such Security shall have been paid or duly provided for.

Upon presentation of any Security redeemed in part only, the Issuer shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver to or on the order of the Holder thereof, at the expense of the Issuer, a new Security or Securities of such series, of authorized denominations, in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion of the Security so presented.

Section 12.04 Exclusion of Certain Securities from Eligibility for Selection for Redemption. Securities shall be excluded from eligibility for selection for redemption if they are identified by registration and certificate number in an Officer’s Certificate delivered to the Trustee at least 40 days prior to the last date on which notice of redemption may be given as being owned of record and beneficially by, and not pledged or hypothecated by either (a) the Issuer or (b) an entity specifically identified in such written statement as directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with the Issuer.

 

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Section 12.05 Mandatory and Optional Sinking Funds. The minimum amount of any sinking fund payment provided for by the terms of the Securities of any series is herein referred to as a “mandatory sinking fund payment”, and any payment in excess of such minimum amount provided for by the terms of the Securities of any series is herein referred to as an “optional sinking fund payment”. The date on which a sinking fund payment is to be made is herein referred to as the “sinking fund payment date”.

In lieu of making all or any part of any mandatory sinking fund payment with respect to any series of Securities in cash, the Issuer may at its option (a) deliver to the Trustee Securities of such series theretofore purchased or otherwise acquired (except upon redemption pursuant to the mandatory sinking fund) by the Issuer or receive credit for Securities of such series (not previously so credited) theretofore purchased or otherwise acquired (except as aforesaid) by the Issuer and delivered to the Trustee for cancellation pursuant to Section 2.10 and, if applicable, receive credit for Securities (not previously so credited) converted into Common Stock and so delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, (b) receive credit for optional sinking fund payments (not previously so credited) made pursuant to this Section, or (c) receive credit for Securities of such series (not previously so credited) redeemed by the Issuer through any optional redemption provision contained in the terms of such series. Securities so delivered or credited shall be received or credited by the Trustee at the sinking fund redemption price specified in such Securities.

On or before the 60th day next preceding each sinking fund payment date for any series, the Issuer will deliver to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate (which need not contain the statements required by Section 11.05) (a) specifying the portion of the mandatory sinking fund payment to be satisfied by payment of cash and the portion to be satisfied by credit of Securities of such series and the basis for such credit, (b) stating that none of the Securities of such series for which credit will be taken has theretofore been so credited, (c) stating that no defaults in the payment of interest or Events of Default with respect to such series have occurred (which have not been waived or cured) and are continuing and (d) stating whether or not the Issuer intends to exercise its right to make an optional sinking fund payment with respect to such series and, if so, specifying the amount of such optional sinking fund payment which the Issuer intends to pay on or before the next succeeding sinking fund payment date. Any Securities of such series to be credited and required to be delivered to the Trustee in order for the Issuer to be entitled to credit therefor as aforesaid which have not theretofore been delivered to the Trustee shall be delivered for cancellation pursuant to Section 2.10 to the Trustee with such Officer’s Certificate (or reasonably promptly thereafter if acceptable to the Trustee). Such Officer’s Certificate shall be irrevocable and upon its receipt by the Trustee the Issuer shall become unconditionally obligated to make all the cash payments or payments therein referred to, if any, on or before the next succeeding sinking fund payment date. Failure of the Issuer, on or before any such 60th day, to deliver such Officer’s Certificate and Securities specified in this paragraph, if any, shall not constitute a default but shall constitute, on and as of such date, the irrevocable election of the Issuer that the mandatory sinking fund payment for such series due on the next succeeding sinking fund payment date shall be paid entirely in cash without the option to deliver or credit Securities of such series in respect thereof.

If the sinking fund payment or payments (mandatory or optional or both) to be made in cash on the next succeeding sinking fund payment date plus any unused balance of any

 

51


preceding sinking fund payments made in cash shall exceed $50,000 (or the equivalent thereof in any Foreign Currency or a lesser sum in Dollars or in any Foreign Currency if the Issuer shall so request) with respect to the Securities of any particular series, such cash shall be applied on the next succeeding sinking fund payment date to the redemption of Securities of such series at the sinking fund redemption price together with accrued interest to the date fixed for redemption. If such amount shall be $50,000 (or the equivalent thereof in any Foreign Currency) or less and the Issuer makes no such request then it shall be carried over until a sum in excess of $50,000 (or the equivalent thereof in any Foreign Currency) is available, which delay in accordance with this paragraph shall not be a default or breach of the obligation to make such payment. The Trustee shall select, in the manner provided in Section 12.02, for redemption on such sinking fund payment date a sufficient principal amount of Securities of such series to which such cash may be applied, as nearly as may be, and shall (if requested in writing by the Issuer) inform the Issuer of the serial numbers of the Securities of such series (or portions thereof) so selected. The Trustee, in the name and at the expense of the Issuer (or the Issuer, if it shall so request the Trustee in writing), shall cause notice of redemption of the Securities of such series to be given in substantially the manner provided in Section 12.02 (and with the effect provided in Section 12.03) for the redemption of Securities of such series in part at the option of the Issuer. The amount of any sinking fund payments not so applied or allocated to the redemption of Securities of such series shall be added to the next cash sinking fund payment for such series and, together with such payment, shall be applied in accordance with the provisions of this Section. Any and all sinking fund moneys held on the stated maturity date of the Securities of any particular series (or earlier, if such maturity is accelerated), which are not held for the payment or redemption of particular Securities of such series, shall be applied, together with other moneys, if necessary, sufficient for the purpose, to the payment of the principal of, and interest on, the Securities of such series at maturity. The Issuer’s obligation to make a mandatory or optional sinking fund payment shall automatically be reduced by an amount equal to the sinking fund redemption price allocable to any Securities or portions thereof called for redemption pursuant to the preceding paragraph on any sinking fund payment date and converted into Common Stock in accordance with the terms of such Securities; provided that, if the Trustee is not the conversion agent for the Securities, the Issuer or such conversion agent shall give the Trustee written notice on or prior to the date fixed for redemption of the principal amount of Securities or portions thereof so converted.

On or before each sinking fund payment date, the Issuer shall pay to the Trustee in cash or shall otherwise provide for the payment of all interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption on Securities to be redeemed on such sinking fund payment date.

The Trustee shall not redeem or cause to be redeemed any Securities of a series with sinking fund moneys or give any notice of redemption of Securities for such series by operation of the sinking fund during the continuance of a default in payment of interest on such Securities or of any Event of Default except that, where providing notice of redemption of any Securities shall theretofore have been made, the Trustee shall redeem or cause to be redeemed such Securities, provided that it shall have received from the Issuer a sum sufficient for such redemption. Except as aforesaid, any moneys in the sinking fund for such series at the time when any such default or Event of Default shall occur, and any moneys thereafter paid into the sinking fund, shall, during the continuance of such default or Event of Default, be deemed to have been collected under Article 5 and held for the payment of all such Securities. In case such

 

52


Event of Default shall have been waived as provided in Section 5.10, or the default cured on or before the 60th day preceding the sinking fund payment date in any year, such moneys shall thereafter be applied on such sinking fund payment date in accordance with this Section to the redemption of such Securities.

[Signature pages follow]

 

53


IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have caused this Indenture to be duly executed as of                     .

 

Trevi Therapeutics, Inc.
By:  

 

  Name:
  Title:
Attest:
By:  

 

  Name:
  Title:
                    , Trustee
By:  

 

  Name:
  Title:
EX-4.4

Exhibit 4.4

TREVI THERAPEUTICS, INC.

and

 

 

Trustee

INDENTURE

Dated as of                     

SUBORDINATED DEBT SECURITIES


CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE1

 

Section of Trust Indenture Act
of 1939, as amended

  

Section of
Indenture

310(a)

   6.09

310(b)

   6.08
6.10

310(c)

   Inapplicable

311(a)

   6.13

311(b)

   6.13

311(c)

   Inapplicable

312(a)

   4.01
4.04

312(b)

   4.04(c)

312(c)

   4.04(c)

313(a)

   4.03

313(b)

   4.03

313(c)

   4.03

313(d)

   4.03

314(a)

   4.02

314(b)

   Inapplicable

314(c)

   2.04
8.04
9.01(c)
10.01(b)
11.05

314(d)

   Inapplicable

314(e)

   11.05

314(f)

   Inapplicable

315(a)

   6.01
6.02

315(b)

   5.11

315(c)

   6.01

315(d)

   6.01
   6.02

315(e)

   5.12

316(a)

   5.09
5.10
7.04

316(b)

   5.06
5.10

316(c)

   7.02

317(a)

   5.04

317(b)

   3.04

318(a)

   11.07

 

1 

This Cross-Reference Table does not constitute part of the Indenture and shall not have any bearing on the interpretation of any of its terms or provisions.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

         Page  

ARTICLE 1  DEFINITIONS

     1  

Section 1.01

 

Certain Terms Defined

     1  

ARTICLE 2  SECURITIES

     7  

Section 2.01

 

Forms Generally

     7  

Section 2.02

 

Form of Trustee’s Certificate of Authentication

     8  

Section 2.03

 

Amount Unlimited; Issuable in Series

     8  

Section 2.04

 

Authentication and Delivery of Securities

     10  

Section 2.05

 

Execution of Securities

     12  

Section 2.06

 

Certificate of Authentication

     12  

Section 2.07

 

Denomination and Date of Securities; Payments of Interest

     12  

Section 2.08

 

Registration, Transfer and Exchange

     13  

Section 2.09

 

Mutilated, Defaced, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities

     15  

Section 2.10

 

Cancellation of Securities; Destruction Thereof

     16  

Section 2.11

 

Temporary Securities

     16  

ARTICLE 3  COVENANTS OF THE ISSUER

     16  

Section 3.01

 

Payment of Principal and Interest

     16  

Section 3.02

 

Offices for Payments, Etc

     17  

Section 3.03

 

Appointment to Fill a Vacancy in Office of Trustee

     17  

Section 3.04

 

Paying Agents

     17  

Section 3.05

 

Written Statement to Trustee

     18  

ARTICLE 4  SECURITYHOLDERS LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE ISSUER AND THE TRUSTEE

     18  

Section 4.01

 

Issuer to Furnish Trustee Information as to Names and Addresses of Securityholders

     18  

Section 4.02

 

Reports by the Issuer

     19  

Section 4.03

 

Reports by the Trustee

     19  

Section 4.04

 

Preservation of Information; Communication with Securityholders

     19  

ARTICLE 5  REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT

     19  

Section 5.01

 

Event of Default Defined; Acceleration of Maturity; Waiver of Default

     19  

Section 5.02

 

Collection of Debt by Trustee; Trustee May Prove Debt

     21  

Section 5.03

 

Application of Proceeds

     23  

Section 5.04

 

Suits for Enforcement

     24  

Section 5.05

 

Restoration of Rights on Abandonment of Proceedings

     24  

Section 5.06

 

Limitations on Suits by Securityholders

     24  

Section 5.07

 

Unconditional Right of Securityholders to Institute Certain Suits

     25  

Section 5.08

 

Powers and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver of Default

     25  

 

-i-


Section 5.09

 

Control by Holders of Securities

     26  

Section 5.10

 

Waiver of Past Defaults

     26  

Section 5.11

 

Trustee to Give Notice of Default

     26  

Section 5.12

 

Right of Court to Require Filing of Undertaking to Pay Costs

     27  

ARTICLE 6  CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE

     27  

Section 6.01

 

Duties and Responsibilities of the Trustee; During Default; Prior to Default

     27  

Section 6.02

 

Certain Rights of the Trustee

     27  

Section 6.03

 

Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals, Disposition of Securities or Application of Proceeds Thereof

     29  

Section 6.04

 

Trustee and Agents May Hold Securities; Collections, Etc

     29  

Section 6.05

 

Moneys Held by Trustee

     29  

Section 6.06

 

Compensation and Indemnification of Trustee and Its Prior Claim

     30  

Section 6.07

 

Right of Trustee to Rely on Officer’s Certificate, Etc

     30  

Section 6.08

 

Disqualification; Conflicting Interests

     30  

Section 6.09

 

Persons Eligible for Appointment as Trustee

     30  

Section 6.10